Glossary of Label Terms

Embossed Rolls produced by Coast Label

ABRASION RESISTANCE 
The degree to which a label surface, including printing and protective coatings, is able to resist rubbing or wearing from friction. Also referred to as “rub” or “scuff” resistance.

ABSORBENCY
That property of a porous material which causes it to consume liquids or vapors.

ABSORPTION
When one substance penetrates into the mass of another.

ACCELERATE
To speed up the progress of an event. A few ways this can be achieved are by using heat, fast drying solvents, or increasing the volume of air.

ACCELERATED AGING 
The test procedures for subjecting label materials to special environmental conditions in order to predict the course of natural aging, but in a far shorter period of time.

ACCELERATOR
A material added to a liquid compound to convert the whole mass into a solid, or speed up its cure. Accelerators differ from catalysts in that they participate in the reaction and lose their chemical identity as a result.

ACETATE
A plastic synthesized from cellulose dissolved in acetic acid which exhibits rigidity, dimensional stability and ink receptivity. Transparent or matte films, sometimes used for label stocks.

ACETATE FILM 
A clear film made from cellulose acetate.

ACRYLIC
A general chemical term of a particular family of thermoplastic resins based on acrylic acid and its derivatives.

ACRYLIC ADHESIVE 
A pressure-sensitive adhesive based on high-strength acrylic polymers. It can be coated as a solvent or emulsion system.

ACRYLIC EMULSION 
Water-based latex made with acrylic polymers. It is used in coatings and adhesives.

ADHERE
The sticking together of two surfaces by adhesion.

ADHEREND
The substance or surfaces to which the adhesive is applied; the surfaces which are bonded together.

ADHESION BUILD-UP 
An increase in the peel adhesion value of a self-adhesive material after it has been allowed to dwell on the applied surface.

ADHESION PROMOTER 
See primer.

ADHESION TEST 
Any of a variety of test methods used to determine the adequacy of ink, coating or adhesive adhesion to a substrate.

ADHESION
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces. Measure of the strength with which one material sticks to another.

ADHESION, MECHANICAL 
Adhesion cause by the physical interlocking of the adhesive with base surface irregularities of the adherend.

ADHESION, PEEL 
The measure of the force required to remove a material from another surface at a specified angle and speed, after the material has been applied under specific conditions.

ADHESION, SHEAR 
A measure of the time required to slide a specific sized area of a pressure sensitive label material from a standard flat surface in a direction parallel to the surface. Weight and heat are sometimes used to speed up the test.

ADHESION, SPECIFIC 
The adhesion to a specific surface.

ADHESION, ULTIMATE 
The mature or final bond achieved, under controlled conditions, between ink, coating or adhesive to any flexible or rigid substrate.

ADHESIVE
A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

ADHESIVE BLEED
Adhesive ooze or flow from pressure sensitive label stock or labels as a result of cold flow. Also referred to as edge ooze or halo.

ADHESIVE BUILD-UP 
The undesirable transfer of adhesive from label material to machinery parts during conversion or application.

ADHESIVE DEPOSIT 
See adhesive residue.

ADHESIVE RESIDUE 
The pressure sensitive adhesive remaining behind on a surface due to cohesive or priming failure when a pressure sensitive label is removed from that surface. Also referred to as adhesive deposit or adhesive transfer.

ADHESIVE SKIP 
The absence of adhesive in some areas of film or paper label stock.

ADHESIVE SPLITTING 
Failure within the adhesive mass when labels are under stress or removed. If splitting occurs, part of the adhesive will remain on the labeled surface and part on the face material.

ADHESIVE STRIKE-THROUGH 
When adhesive penetrates through the face material of a pressure sensitive lamination.

ADHESIVE TRANSFER 
The transfer of adhesive from its normal position on the label to the surface to which the label was attached.

ADHESIVE, COLD TEMPERATURE 
An adhesive that will induce a bond to cold surfaces in a cold environment.

ADHESIVE, HIGH TEMPERATURE 
An adhesive that will enable a label to withstand sustained elevated temperatures, usually 200 degrees F or higher.

ADHESIVE, PERMANENT 
An adhesive characterized by relatively high ultimate adhesion. Sometimes it can be removed when the degree of force used overcomes its bonding ability but generally it is not removable.

ADHESIVE, PRESSURE SENSITIVE
A type of adhesive which in dry form is aggressively tacky at room temperature. It has the capability of promoting a bond to dissimilar surfaces on contact, with pressure.

ADHESIVE, REMOVABLE 
An adhesive characterized by relatively high cohesive strength and low ultimate adhesion, so it can be removed easily from most surfaces. Some adhesive transfer could take place depending on the affinity of the adhesive to the surface.

AFFINITY
An attraction or polar similarity between adhesive and adherend.

AGED RELEASE
The force required to remove a release liner from an adhesive after a measured period of time, often at elevated temperatures.

AGING
The change or changes undergone by a material as a result of the passage of time.

AIR DRIED
Forced (usually heated) air drying of coatings or inks.

ALCOHOL
A group of organic solvents widely used in flexographic inks.

ALIGNMENT
Refers to the relative alignment of the printing stations to each other and to the die stations on a label press. The relative position of a scanner or light source to a bar code.

ALLIGATORING
Term describing the appearance of an adhesive, coating or sealer film that is cracked into large segments.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 
A term used to denote the temperature of the surrounding air.

ANALYSIS
The separation of a substance or mixture of substances into the component parts, so that a knowledge of the percent composition can be obtained.

ANCHOR COAT
A coating applied to the surface of a substrate to affect the adhesion of subsequent coatings. Also called primer, tie coat or pre-coat.

ANCHORAGE
The specific adhesion of a pressure sensitive adhesive to a face material or an anchor coat.

ANILOX INKING 
In flexography, a two roll inking system consisting of a smooth roll which dips in an ink trough and transfers the ink to an etched metal or ceramic roll with wells of fixed volume that transfer the ink controllably to the printing plate.

ANILOX ROLL 
Engraved metal or ceramic metering roll used in flexo presses to meter a controlled film of ink from the contacting rubber covered doctor roller to the printing plates which print the web. Volume of ink is affected by the cell count per linear inch and dimension of the cell and cell wall of the engraving.

ANSI
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private organization responsible for the development of voluntary industry standards. ANSI sets safety standards for many types of products, and those standards often include procedures for labeling that include hazard and precautionary statements. ANSI also sets standard for barcode printing and verification

ANTIOXIDANTS
Agents which retard the action of oxygen in substances subject to oxidation.

ANTISTATIC AGENTS
Ingredients in coatings that make the coating antistatic.

ANTISTATIC COATINGS 
Coatings applied to one or both surfaces of a substrate to reduce the electrostatic build up so that the material can be further processed, I.e. sheeted and stacked.

ANVIL CUT LABELS 
A pressure sensitive label which has been die-cut through all components of the label stock, including liner material; steel-to-steel cut; metal-to-metal cut.

ANVIL ROLL
Hardened steel roll upon which the bearers of a rotary die cutter ride which also provides the hardened surface for die cutting.

APPLICATION 
Refers to a pressure sensitive label actually being adhered to a product.

APPLICATION TEMPERATURE 
The temperature of a substrate or label material at the time the label will be applied. All adhesives have a minimum application temperature rating. Temperature can be a factor in the design of labels that will be used in hot or cold environments.

APPLICATOR 
A device or machine that automatically feeds and applies pressure sensitive labels to a product.

AQUEOUS INKS 
Inks produced utilizing a water base.

AQUEOUS 
Refers to adhesive or inking systems which use water as the carrier or vehicle.

ARTIFICIAL AGING 
The accelerated testing of specimens to determine the change in properties, carried out over a short period of time. Such tests are indicative of what may be expected of a material under actual service conditions over extended periods.

ARTWORK 
Traditionally, the original design including drawings and text produced by the artist. All elements of the design from which the black and white art and printing plates are made. Also refers to all elements of the black and white production art. Today, the artwork is almost always a computer file.

ASCII 
The character set and code described in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, ANSI X3.4-19777. Each character is encoded with 7 bits (8 bits including parity check) and is used for information interchange between data processing systems, communications systems, and associated equipment. The ASCII set consists of both control and printing characters used in printing bar codes.

ASPECT RATIO 
The ratio of the height of a bar code symbol to its width.

ASSET ID LABELS 
Labels or tags used to speed the regular inventory of capital assets and provide a timed log of that inventory. These are manufactured to a variety of specifications defined by the product owner. Bar code type, background color, sequencing, laminating, and die cutting are all options.

ASTM 
ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally company that develops and delivers voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world, and many are used directly or indirectly in the label converting industry.

AUTOCLAVE 
A pressurized, steam heated vessel generally used for sterilization. Labels used in autoclave environments must be designed to withstand superheated steam under pressure.

BACK PRINTING 
Refers to printing on the underside of a pressure sensitive substrate or laminate, i.e. on the adhesive or back of liner.

BACK SPLIT 
The slit in the release liner that facilitates its removal by hand.

BACKGROUND
The area surrounding a printed symbol.

BACKING
The carrier sheet of material, as opposed to the face material, in a pressure sensitive lamination. It always has a release coating applied so that the adhesive will not stick permanently to the backing. Also known as the release liner.

BALL-UP
Specific term to describe the tendency of an adhesive to stick to itself; cohesiveness. Such an adhesive, when rolled between fingers, will not spread smoothly but will roll up in small spheres.

BAR CODE
In optical reading, a system of symbols which identifies data through length, position size or thickness of lines or symbols. Codes are normally machine printed.

BAR CODE DENSITY
The number of data characters which can be represented in a linear unit of measure. Bar code density is often expressed in characters per inch.

BAR CODE READER
A device used to identify and read bar code symbols.

BAR CODE VALIDATION
The process of checking that the correct number has been printed as expected. The validation process is not a check of print quality of the bar code; it will not tell you if the code is readable by other bar code readers. This term should not be confused with Bar Code Verification.

BAR CODE VERIFICATION 
A bar code only becomes effective if it can be read or scanned the first time and every time. To ensure that bar codes will scan first time and meet the acceptance requirements. Coast Label uses a quality control device called a verifier to insure that the bar code matches the ANSI grading standards within the permitted tolerance levels, as well as the human readable information is present as specified.

BAR LENGTH 
A measure of the length of the vertical bar in a bar code.

BAR
The dark element of a printed bar code symbol.

BAR WIDTH REDUCTION 
Reduction of the nominal bar width dimension on film masters or printing plates to compensate for printing gain.

BAR WIDTH 
The thickness of a bar measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same bar.

BARRIER COAT 
A coating applied to the face material on the side opposite to the printing surface to provide increased opacity to the face material and/or to prevent migration between adhesive and the face material and improve anchorage of adhesive to face material. Sealer coat.

BASIC SHEET SIZE 
The size of a sheet of paper which is used to determine paper weight. Sizes vary depending on the type of stock.

BASIS WEIGHT 
The weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to a given size. Most backing papers used in pressure sensitive laminations are based on a ream size of 500 sheets 24″ x 36″. Face papers are more typically 500 sheets 25″ x 38″.

BEARER
Type-high supports designed into each end of a printing plate to help carry part of the impression load and to help prevent bounce. Also the load bearing surfaces(s) of a rotary die, usually positioned at each end of the die.

BIAX
Biaxially oriented material, that is, oriented in the machine and transverse directions.

BI-DIRECTIONAL READ 
The ability to read data successfully whether the scanning of the bar code is done left to right or right to left.

BI-DIRECTIONAL SYMBOL 
A bar code symbol which permits reading in complementary directions.

BINDER
The component of an ink that supplies the cohesiveness.

BIT
An abbreviation for ‘binary digit’. A single character in a binary number.

BLACK LIGHT 
Black light inks are invisible to the eye in a normally lit environment, but can be seen when exposed to a black light, which emits long wave UV radiation. Therefore the inks must be checked during the manufacturing process by the use of black light / UV light.

BLACK LIGHT VARNISH 
A clear varnish applied on top of the label that glows brightly when exposed to black UV light, while giving the appearance of a normal clear varnish under most lighting conditions. This is a security feature offered by Coast Label.

BLACK-AND-WHITE 
Originals or reproductions in single color or monochrome, usually refers to artwork.

BLEED
When the printed image extends beyond the trim edge of the label.

BLEEDING
The diffusion or migration of an ink component or dye into an area where it is not wanted. The spreading or running of a pigment color by action of a solvent. Also the diffusion of migration of an adhesive component into the face material.

BLEED-THROUGH 
See penetration-migration.

BLIND EMBOSSING 
A design which is achieved by passing the label material through a matched pair of male/female embossing cylinders to give a bas-relief (raised) effect.

BLOCKING TEST 
A test used in measuring the tendency of surface-to-surface sticking.

BLOCKING
Undesired adhesion between the plies in rolls of pressure sensitive stock usually due to adhesive ooze, improper drying of inks, or improper curing of coatings, often to the extent that damage to at least one surface is visible upon their separation if they can in fact be separated.

BODY STOCK 
See face material.

BOLD-FACE TYPE
Name given to type that is heavier than text type with which it is used.

BOND
To attach materials together by adhesives.

BONDING RANGE 
The time during which satisfactory bonds can be made. A bonding range of from 10 to 30 minutes indicates that maximum bonds can be achieved between 10 and 30 minutes.

BONDING STRENGTH 
In paper, the force with which the fibers adhere to each other. In surface coatings, such as inks and adhesives, the strength with which the dried coating adheres to the surface of the substrate. Also refers to the degree of adhesion of a pressure sensitive face material to any surface.

BRIGHTNESS
The reflectivity of a sheet of paper for blue light measured under standardized conditions on a particular instrument designed and calibrated specifically for the purpose. Strictly speaking, brightness is not a colormetric quantity.

BURN
Common term used for printing plate exposure.

BURSTING PERF 
A fold perforation that permits mechanical bursting.

BURSTING STRENGTH 
The pressure required to rupture a material specimen when it is tested in a specified instrument under specified conditions. It is largely determined by the tensile strength and extensibility of the material.

BUTT CUT LABELS 
Rectangular labels in continuous form separated by a single precision-depth knife cut across the web that goes through the face stock and adhesive, but not through the liner. Also called face cut or knife cut.

BUTT SPLICE 
An end to end joining of two similar materials used for continuity of surface and design. It is often used in joining stickyback, printing plates and webs of substrates in process.

C1S
Abbreviation for coated one side paper.

CAD/CAM 
Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Makeup or Manufacturing.

CALENDER FINISHED 
A term applied to any paper with a surface glazed by means of a calender stack.

CALIPER
The thickness of labels, usually measured in mils (one thousandth of an inch). A mil is sometimes called a “point.” A 10 mil tag might also be called a 10 point tag stock.

CARRIER
The release liner materials that carry or deliver pressure sensitive labels.

CAST COATED 
A high-gloss enamel finish used on a face stock. This term is applied to a high gloss finish on a label.

CAST COATED PAPER 
When the coating on paper is allowed to harden or set while in contact with a finished casting surface.

CAST FILM 
Plastic sheeting manufactured by the casting process, as opposed to the extruding process.

CAST VINYL 
Vinyl sheeting manufactured by coating a liquid vinyl acetate or similar ester onto a casting paper and curing in a heated oven.

CATALYST
A substance which has the capability of initiating or accelerating the speed of a reaction between two or more substances when introduced into their presence.

CAVITY
The engraving on a rotary or flexible die that die cuts a single shape of the label or tag.

CE MARKING 
A mandatory conformance marking requirement for many products sold on the European Economic Area (EEA). With the CE marking on a product the manufacturer ensures that the product is in conformity with the essential requirements of the applicable EC directives. The letters “CE” stand for “Conformit Europenne” (“European Conformity”).

CELL
A very small engraved or etched depression in an anilox roll that carries the ink to the plate.

CELLULOSE
Fibrous substance of wood, cotton and other vegetable matter.

CENTIGRADE
A scale of temperature which features 0 and 100 degrees as the freezing and boiling points of water. Also called Celsius.

CHALKING
A form of coating deterioration characterized by the formation of a loose, chalk-like powder on the film surface.

CHARACTER
In bar coding, a single group of bars and spaces which represent an individual number, letter or punctuation mark.

CHARGE
Usually refers to the degree or type of electrical property carried by a substrate.

CHECK DIGIT 
A digit included within a bar code whose value is based mathematically on other characters included in the symbol. It is used to perform a mathematical check to ensure the accuracy of the read.

CHECKING
The presence of hair line cracks in a varnish coating, a lacquer coating, a film or an adhesive coating.

CHEMICAL CURING 
The setting or curing of an adhesive, coating or sealer brought about by the addition of a catalyst or accelerator.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE 
The resistance of a pressure sensitive label to the deteriorating effects resulting from exposure to chemicals under specified conditions.

CHOKE
An image whose edges have been pulled in slightly from those of the original. The image area remains essentially the same except for a narrow strip of reduction around its perimeter.

CHOKES AND SPREADS 
Overlaps of overprinting images to prevent color fringes or white borders around image detail caused by press registration variation during printing.

CHROMATIC SCALE 
The colors of the spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet.

CIRCUMFERENTIAL REGISTER 
See running register.

CLARITY
Degree of clearness.

CLAY COATING 
A term used to describe a paper with a clay coating on either one or both sides. Clay coating is added to paper to enhance smoothness, gloss and it enhances printability.

CLEAR AREA 
An area that precedes the start character and follows the stop character of a bar code symbol. Also known as the quiet zone.

CLEAR COAT 
A coating that protects the printing and the surface of a pressure sensitive label from abrasion, sunlight, chemicals, moisture, or a combination of these.

CLINICAL LABORATORY LABELS 
Labels that are used to insure identity and integrity of vialed laboratory specimens through a variety of means. The labels can be used to identify date, collector, shipping container seal, and specimen ID, and may also provide double duty as a sealing document for the specimen. The labels can also be die cut in a sophisticated manner or be made from specialty face stocks which provide evidence of tampering.

COATED PAPER 
General term applying to all papers which have been surface coated with pigments.

COATING
The emulsion, varnish, or lacquer applied to a label, often over a printed surface, to give it added protection from moisture or abrasion, or to give the finished surface receptivity to subsequent printing.

COATING WEIGHT 
The weight of a coating per unit area, such as lb/1,000 square feet, lb/ream or grams/sq meter.

CODE 128 
A full alphanumeric bar code capable of encoding all 128 ASCII characters.

CODE 39 
A full alphanumeric bar code consisting of nine black and white bars for each character symbol.

CO-EXTRUSIONS
Film produced by more than one extruder through a common die. Films are often made of many layers.

COHESION
The internal strength of an adhesive mass; resistance to flow, and resistance to failure in the adhesive when labels are removed or are under stress. See cohesive strength. Also referred to as cohesive strength, internal bond, and shear.

COHESIVE FAILURE
The mode of failure wherein the adhesive splits, leaving some residue on the labeled surface and part on the label.

COHESIVE STRENGTH 
A measure of the property of an adhesive which resists forces parallel to the surface, such as adhesive splitting.

COLD CRACKING 
The breaking or shattering under stress of plastic coatings that have become brittle due to lowered temperatures.

COLD FLOW 
The tendency of a pressure sensitive adhesive to act like a heavy, viscous liquid over long periods of time. Such phenomena as ‘oozing’ or ‘increases in adhesion’ are the results of this characteristic.

COLD TEMPERATURE ADHESIVE 
An adhesive that will enable a pressure sensitive label to adhere or stick well when applied to a cold substrate, often in cold ambient temperatures.

COLD TEMPERATURE LABELS 
Cold temperature labels are used for labeling items that need to be stored in cold storage. They use permanent freezer adhesives, which are typically designed to be applied at room temperature and then placed in a freezer. However there are adhesives specifically made to be placed on already frozen products.

COLLATING
Assembling in proper order.

COLOR CHANGE INKS 
These inks are widely used in security printing applications. Some change color when in contact with certain chemicals. These are used for authentication of security print and other types of secure documents. Others bleed a different color when wet or when heated.

COLOR CORRECTION
Any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching, and/or electronic scanning used to correct for color errors in process inks.

COLOR FASTNESS 
That property of a pressure sensitive label to retain its color in normal storage or to resist change in color when exposed to light, heat or other deleterious influences.

COLOR KEY 
A series of colored films used to check individual colors and stripping. When overlaid in printing sequence it will produce a multicolored image. A color key is limited to yellow, orange, dark blue, magenta, cyan, black, white, gold, brown, green, red, beige and any combination thereof. It is a photographic positive of the separation negatives in generic color.

COLOR MATCHING
To duplicate the hue, value and intensity of a given color sample usually by blending appropriate elements.

COLOR PERMANENCE 
See color fastness.

COLOR PROCESS 
A reproduction of any subject where the colors are separated by any method utilizing at least the three primary process colors – yellow, magenta and cyan. Using halftone plates to produce intermediate colors and shades. Linework and screenwork can be utilized.

COLOR PROOF 
A printed or simulated printed image of each process color (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) using inks, toners or dyes to give a simulated impression of the final printed reproduction. Color proofs are now most often generated by computer.

COLOR RETENTION 
The property of a color to resist fading or other deterioration on exposure to light.

COLOR SEPARATION 
The process of separating original artwork into individual spot colors or the process colors of yellow, magenta, cyan and black for the purpose of making printing plates.

COLOR SHIFT INKS 
An ink that when applied to a label appears as two or more distinct colors when viewed from different angles.

COLOR STABILITY 
See color fastness.

COLOR STATIONS 
Each printing section of the press or set of rollers used to print each individual color.

COLORANT
The color portion of an ink; may be a pigment, dye, or a combination of the two.

COMPATIBILITY
The ability of ink, film, substrate and/or solvents to function together in an acceptable manner.

CONDENSED TYPE 
Proportionally narrow or slender type faces.

CONFIRM 
A 3M security laminate which creates a custom designed covert pattern on the label. This pattern is only visible when viewed with a retro reflective light source.

CONFORMABILITY
The ability of a label material to yield to the contours of a curved or rough surface, especially surfaces with compound curves or tapers.

CONTINUOUS CODE 
A bar code or symbol where the space between characters (intercharacter gap) is part of the code.

CONTINUOUS LABEL 
Pinfeed, and usually fan-folded labels manufactured from a continuous web of label stock, which is not cut into units prior to execution. Continuous labels are mostly used for data processing applications.

CONTROLLED RELEASE
A release level greater than that provided by an unmodified release coating.

CONVERTER
The type of manufacturer who produces things such as plain or printed rolls, sheets, bags or pouches from rolls of film, foil or paper, including pressure sensitive labels and tags.

COPIER LABEL
A label designed for overprinting by a plain paper photocopier.

CO-POLYMER 
Two or more mixed monomers which, when polymerized, yield a complex product having properties different from either simple polymer alone.

COPY
Any furnished material (manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of printing.

COPY PREPARATION 
Directions for desired size and other details for illustrations, and the arrangement into proper position of various parts of the label being prepared for reproduction.

CORE
A paper, plastic or metal tube on which paper, film, or foil labels are wound for shipment.

CORE HOLDER 
Device for affixing core to shaft; also called core chuck.

CORE PLUGS 
Metal, wood or compressed paper plugs which are driven into the paper core of the finished roll to prevent crushing or other damage to the core.

CORNER RADIUS 
The arc or curvature of the corners of a die-cut label. The die blades are shaped so that they can impart a rounded corner.

CORONA TREATING 
An electrical discharge which is used to raise the critical surface tension of low or inert substrates thereby enhancing printability.

COUPON
Removable label either supplying information or having redeemable value. They may be either pressure sensitive or non-pressure sensitive.

COVERAGE
Ink or coating mileage; the surface area covered by a given quantity of ink or coating material. In flexography, the extent or degree to which a base material is covered, colored, or hidden by an ink or coating.

COVERT IMAGE
A hidden image printed on a label not visible to the naked eye. They are usually printed with invisible fluorescent inks that are detected when exposed to UV light.

CRACKING
See crazing.

CRAZING
The appearance of a network of small cracks in a varnish coat or a plastic facestock.

CREEP
The lateral movement of a pressure sensitive label on a surface due to low cohesive strength.

CROP MARKS 
The marks made on the outer edges of artwork to designate the area to be trimmed, sheeted, or die cut. Crop marks indicate the relative positioning of the printing to the finished sheet or die cut shape.

CROP
To eliminate portions of the copy (indicated by cropmarks).

CROSS DIRECTION 
The direction across the web. Papers are weaker and are affected more by changes in relative humidity in the cross direction that the grain direction.

CRUSH CUT
A cut made by a rotary blade in contact with an anvil or base roll.

CRUSH SCORE
See score.

CRUSHED CORE 
Core that gives way and becomes out-of-round either from too much tension or a bump.

CRYOGENIC LABELS 
Labels which are used in maximum harsh environment situations involving cryogenic freezing. Specialty adhesives and substrates are required to adhere in low temperatures.

CSA
Canadian Standards Association. Canadian association similar to Underwriters Laboratories.

CURE 
To change the properties of adhesives, coatings or inks by chemical reaction.

CURETIME 
The time/temperature combination required to bring about the desired level of cure.

CURING TEMPERATURE 
Temperature to which an adhesive, ink or coating is subjected to for curing.

CURL
The tendency of material by itself or in a laminate to bend or partly wrap around the axis of one of its directions. Curl is often caused by humidity or improper tension.

CUTS
The number of rolls slit from a master roll.

CYAN
A subtractive primary color which reflects blue and green light and absorbs red light.

CYLINDER
In flexography, most rollers in the printing press are called rolls with the exception of that upon which the printing plates are mounted, and the one which received the impression, and these are usually referred to as cylinders, I.e., plates, cylinder, impression cylinder.

CYREL
DuPont’s trademark for photopolymer plate material.

DATA MATRIX CODE 
A proprietary dynamically variable 2D matrix code, which provides a visual representation of a machine executable electronic binary code.

DEBOSSED
An indent or cut in design or lettering of a surface.

DELAMINATION
The separation of a material into layers in a direction approximately parallel to the surface. The partial or complete separation of the layers of a laminate.

DENSITOMETER
Instrument that measures reflected or transmitted light. A reflection densitometer is used as a control instrument to check the uniformity and consistency of print color.

DESTATICIZATION
Treating plastic materials to minimize their accumulation of static electricity.

DESTRUCTIBLE LABEL 
A type of pressure sensitive label that, once removed from the release liner and bonded to the intended surface, cannot be removed from the surface intact. Any attempt to remove the label is readily evident, and the label cannot be removed and replaced successfully. These labels are typically used when users want to discourage and show evidence of tampering.

DETACKIFICATION
The destroying of the tack or stickiness of a pressure sensitive adhesive.

DIE ADAPTER 
A device used to modify a die station of one type of press so that it will accommodate dies originally designed to be used on different presses.

DIE BLADES 
Sharpened, thin steel blades used in flat or rotary dies. Also refers to blades on machine engraved or EDM manufactured rotary dies.

DIE CUT LABEL
Pressure sensitive labels die-cut to the release liner from which the matrix has been die cut and usually removed.

DIE CUT
To cut labels with a die.

DIE
Hardened steel or tungsten carbide tools or devices used for imparting or cutting a desired shape, form, or finish to or from a material. A device used in converting machinery for cutting only the face material of a pressure sensitive laminate or for punching out shapes from the entire laminate or any other label material.

DIE HOLD-DOWN ASSEMBLY 
A steel block incorporating bearings which apply pressure to the bearer surface of a rotary die cutter through pressure screws.

DIE LIFE
Mileage expected from a new die and that expected following a resharpening of a die, usually expressed in revolutions.

DIE LINES 
A drawn layout of the die cut shapes of the label to be manufactured. Die-lines are an important component of the artwork as they not only show the size and shape of the label, they show the artwork placement within the die-line.

DIE STAIN TEST 
Used to check die cutting accuracy. Usually done with diluted ink applied to the die cut surface of the backing or liner material. The ink wicks into any fractures of the silicone coated surface thereby exhibiting the problem areas.

DIE-CUTTING 
The process of using dies or sharp steel rules to cut any shape for labels.

DIFFERENTIAL RELEASE 
A release liner with release coatings on both sides. One side has easy release while the opposite side is tighter such that the adhesive stays with the tighter side during winding and other subsequent converting.

DIGITAL PRINTING 
The process involving the creation, storage, transfer and reproduction of printed images in a digital format so as to allow fixed or completely variable information to be printed on a label without printing plates.

DILUENT
A liquid used to thin ink.

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY 
That property of a material which enables it to resist length, width, or thickness changes under varying conditions of heat, cold, moisture and other influences.

DIRECT THERMAL LABELS 
Labels used with a printing method utilizing heat impinged upon a specially coated substrate so that the heat turns the surface black. No ribbon is required.

DIRECT THERMAL
Printing method utilizing heat impinged upon a specially coated substrate so that the heat turns the surface black.

DISCOLORATION
Any change from the original color, or an unintended inconsistency of color.

DISCRETE CODE
A bar code or symbol where the spaces between characters (intercharacter gap) are not part of the code.

DISPENSER 
A device that dispenses pressure sensitive labels, either manually or automatically, making them ready for application. In its simplest form, it can serve as a package or dispenser box for the labels as well.

DISPENSING EDGE 
A relatively sharp edge around which a backing material is pulled in order to dispense a pressure sensitive label from the backing.

DISPERSION
A uniform distribution of solid particles in a vehicle.

DISTORTED
Intentionally compensating for shrinkage, stretch, etc. of the flexographic printing plates so that the printed image size is as intended by the artist.

DISTORTION COPY 
Copy which is intentionally distorted in preparation, in order to compensate for the effects of dimensional changes due to subsequent processing. Flexographic printing plates require such allowances to compensate for dimensional changes that occur when the plate is wrapped around the print cylinder for mounting on the press.

DOCTOR BLADE
A thin flexible blade mounted parallel to and adjustable against the surface an engraved anilox roll for the purpose of scraping off excess ink or coatings.

DOCTOR ROLL 
The fountain or metering roll in a flexographic press which doctors off excess ink from the engraved anilox roll.

DOT GAIN OR SPREAD 
A printing characteristic in which dots print larger on the paper or other substrate than they are on the printing plate, causing darker tones or colors. See dot growth.

DOT GROWTH 
The increase in size of a dot from the original artwork to the printed sheet. Dot gain consists of two parts, physical dot gain and optical dot gain due to the physics of light absorption and reflection.

DOT MATRIX 
A printing technology that produces its printed image by firing pins or hammers against a ribbon and then onto paper.

DOT
The individual element of halftones. All the dots in a halftone have equal density and spacing and vary in area.

DOUBLE COATED 
A pressure sensitive product consisting of a carrier material with similar or dissimilar adhesives applied to the two surfaces and wound with a silicone release paper.

DPI
Dots per inch. Resolution is expressed as the number of lines or halftone dots per inch, also called screen ruling. This is also used to express the print resolution of digital printing machines including laser printers, thermal printers and ink jet printers.

DRIER 
Any substance added to hasten drying during ink making. Also part of a printing press through which the web travels in order to effectively dry the ink or coating applied. Also spelled ‘dryer’.

DROP-OUT 
To knock out color from behind another color so that the first color will not affect the appearance of the second color.

DRY EDGE 
The edge of paper or film where there is no adhesive. This makes for easy removal of release liner.

DRYER
See drier.

DWELL
Refers to the length of time pressure is applied to a pressure sensitive label during application. The time that a pressure sensitive material remains on a surface before testing the adhesion or removability. Also the time that a hot stamp, embossing head, or thermal die remains in contact with the surface of a pressure sensitive material.

DYE TESTS 
See die stain test.

DYNE LEVEL 
Dyne is a measurement of surface tension or energy. The level is the actual reading of the critical surface tension. Low dyne levels indicates a low surface energy which can contribute to poor ink adhesion.

EAN

European Article Numbering system, the international standard bar code for retail food packages.

EDGE CURL 
See curl.

EDGE DEFINITION 
Bar code readers require sharp, well-defined edges to differentiate between bars and spaces and properly decode symbols. Poor edge definition may indicate that the ribbon and media are not properly matched for use with each other. Printing bar codes in a vertical (ladder) orientation can also cause edge definition problems, so horizontal (picket fence) orientation should be used whenever possible.

EDGE LIFT 
When the edge of a label rises off the surface of the substrate. This condition occurs most frequently on small diameter curved surfaces. Resistance to edge lift is dependent on the bond strength between the adhesive and surface to be labeled, the flexibility of the face stock, and the method of application. There are specific label materials and adhesives made for small diameter and curved surface applications.

EDP LABELS 
Electronic Data Processing (EDP) labels are pressure sensitive labels, custom or bland manufactured for use on computer printing equipment. Webs are usually perforated, fan folded, and hole punched (line holes) for pin-wheel feeding.

ELASTIC MEMORY 
A tendency of some materials to attempt to return to their original length after being elongated.

ELECTRONIC PRE-PRESS 
Computer assisted designing of new labels from conceptual through to the separated, stepped and repeated films or files required for plate making.

ELECTRONICS/ELECTRICAL LABELS 
These labels are used on PCs, hand-held computers, consumer electronics equipment (audio/video equipment), digital cameras, electronic games, mobile phones, rechargeable batteries, power supply cables and electronic devices.

ELEMENT
A single binary position in a character; also dimensionally, the narrowest width in a character-bar or space.

ELMENDORF TEST
A standard test for determining the tearing strength of paper.

ELONGATION
The distance a material will stretch lengthwise before breaking, expressed as a percentage of original length. Elongation is not necessarily an indication of conformability.

EMBOSSING
The process of raising a design or image above the label surface, adding another design element to the finished label. It often utilizes a set of matched rolls to get the desired effect. See blind embossing.

EMULSIFICATION
The process of dispersing one liquid in another when the two liquids normally do not mix.

EMULSIFYING AGENT 
Substance used to produce an emulsion of two liquids which do not naturally mix.

EMULSION
A type of mixture wherein two or more immiscible (or unmixable) materials are held together in a homogeneous mixture by the action of a third agent. The term ’emulsifying agent’ is applied to the material which is added to hold the emulsion.

ENCAPSULATED INK 
Ink encapsulated with a coating giving a free flowing dry system which can be activated by heat or pressure.

ENCAPSULATION
The process of encapsulizing or trapping a substance (I.e. fragrance) within a coating so that it can be applied on press.

ENCODED AREA 
The total lineal dimension consumed by all characters of a code pattern including start/stop codes and data.

ENGRAVING
A general term normally applied to any pattern which has been cut into or incised into a surface by hand, mechanical, or etching process.

EPA
Environmental Protection Agency

EPS
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a graphic file format used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another, or for importing into other applications. Virtually all page layout, word-processing, and graphic applications accept imported or placed EPS files. The EPS format preserves many of the graphic elements you can create with Adobe Illustrator, which means that EPS files can be reopened and edited as Illustrator files.

EYEMARK/TIMING MARK 
A small rectangular printing area, usually located near the edge of a web or design, that activates an automatic electronic position regulator for controlling the register or printed design with subsequent equipment or operations. Eyemarks are typically printed black on the liner backing and equally spaced between adjacent labels for variable printing.


FACE MATERIAL 
Any paper, film, fabric, laminate or foil material suitable for converting into pressure sensitive label stock. In the finished construction this web is bonded to the adhesive layer and becomes the functional part of the construction.

FACE SLIT 
A slit in the face material of a pressure sensitive product that facilitates the removal from the backing. Placing a slit on the face of the label will create a peel tab in which the line can be removed in its entirety with ease.

FACE SPLIT 
See face slit.

FACE STOCK 
A paper, film, foil or any other material which is bonded to the adhesive layer and forms the functional part of the label construction. The top layer of a pressure sensitive laminate consists of the label, adhesive, and backing or release liner.

FACE-CUT LABEL 
Any pressure-sensitive label where the face material is cut to the liner.

FADEOMETER
Instrument used to measure the fade resistant properties of inks and other pigmented coatings.

FADING
A gradual decrease in brilliance of color. The term is often applied to the change in color produced by exposure to light.

FAN FOLD 
Labels manufactured from a continuous web of label stock and then folded into a zigzag accordion style format for packing flat in packaging. The fold is created by horizontal perforations in the release liner. Fan folded labels are mostly used for data processing applications.

FEATHERING
A defect which is characterized by ragged, coarse edges, or undesirable irregular edges around a print.

FEED SLOTS 
Round or rectangular holes or slits put in pressure sensitive label stock to maintain the register of pressure sensitive labels while they are being printed or imprinted.

FILLING-IN 
Refers to the filling-in of small reverse areas or a copy of a printed design.

FILMS
Face and liner material manufactured from synthetic high molecular weight polymers.

FINISH
The surface property of a material determined by its texture and gloss. Also an important physical property of paper. It describes surface contour and characteristics measurable by smoothness, gloss, absorbability and print quality. Finish of paper can be aesthetic or functional.

FINISHING
The last work to be carried out on a clients order prior to the job being shipped. Slitting, rewinding, inspection, packing, and labeling are all included in the finishing process. Finishing is also a quality management step to ensure the product leaves the facility under the correct specifications.

FISH EYES 
Round or oval deformations in an adhesive, coating, or ink. Certain types of clear laminations create visible defects immediately after laminating the surface of the label, but will often disappear over a short period of time.

FLAGGING
Usually refer to the ‘lifting’ of a pressure sensitive label from the surface to which it has been applied. This condition most often occurs when the label has been applied around a curved surface.

FLAME-RESISTANT
A material that resists flame because it has been treated with chemicals. While not actually fireproof, it will not support combustion. It will char, but not carry a flame.

FLAMMABLE
Capable of being ignited.

FLEXIBILITY
A property of face stock materials, measured under specified conditions, which indicates how readily they will conform to curved surfaces such as bottles, vials, or syringes. Some labels materials are rigid and will not work well around curved surfaces. Vinyl label material is a good example of a material that has good flexibility and conformity.

FLEXIBLE DIE 
A thin, flexible, steel die cutting plate for use on magnetic cylinders (see magnetic dies). Flexible dies are an inexpensive alternative to engraved tooling. They are typically used for short-run applications as they cannot be re-sharpened like an engraved tool and have a shorter run life than an engraved tool.

FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING 
A method of rotary printing which employs flexible plates, rotary die cutting, rapid-drying inks, in-line laminating, and other converting operations.

FLOCK
A commercial fuzz or lint consisting of fine strands or filaments from textile fibers, animal hair, synthetic resins, among others. It is applied to an adhesive coated surface to produce a decorative felt-like appearance.

FLOOD COAT
The coating of an entire label surface with ink, adhesive or varnish.

FLOW OUT 
The capacity of an ink or adhesive to spread, filling in the hills and valleys on the surface of the printed or non-printed substrate.

FLUORESCENT PAPER 
A paper that is coated with fluorescent pigment which reflects a visible wavelength. It is activated by the remaining absorbed light and re-emits it as color of a longer wavelength which reinforces the reflected color. Fluorescent labels are often used for information, warnings, and instructions.

FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS 
By absorbing unwanted wave lengths of light and converting them into light of desired wave lengths, these colors seem to possess an actual glow of their own.

FLUOROCARBON FILMS 
A film with very high and low temperature limits, excellent electrical characteristics, and a very slippery, non-sticking surface.

FOIL
A very thin metal sheet that can be used as face stock material in label production.

FOIL PAPER LAMINATE 
A foil laminated to a sheet of paper used as a face stock. The foil is usually topcoated to improve ink receptivity. These labels have the appearance of a metal label, but are very thin and can be printed or embossed.

FONT
A complete set of typeface characters of the same design, size, and face which includes upper and lower case, bold, italic, numerals, punctuation marks, and accents. Labels can be printed with any font supplied in artwork files.

FOOD CONTACT ADHESIVES
Adhesives meeting specified sections of the Food & Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations cover direct food labeling as well as incidental contact. Special product recommendations are necessary for specific applications.

FOUR-COLOR PROCESS 
Printing with cyan, yellow, magenta, and black (CYMK) inks using screens to reproduce the wide spectrum of colors. This is referred to as process printing or CMYK printing.

FRAGILE MATERIALS 
Materials based on a range of films and papers that provide tamper evidence due to their low structural integrity. Available as destructible paper or film materials and used in applications such as safety warning labels, warranty labels, package seals, and licensing labels.

FREEZER ADHESIVES 
Adhesives that will function at temperatures below the freezing point. They are usually removable at room temperatures.

GAMMA STERILIZATION INDICATOR 
A self-adhesive indicator in label form that undergoes a simple, chemical color-change when exposed to gamma radiation. The indicator changes from yellow to red when activated. This provides a yes/no indicator of gamma exposure for a wide range of applications, including medical and surgical products sterilization.

GAUGE
A unit of measure usually the thickness or diameter and generally express by a number.

GAUGE BANDS 
Areas where material or liner is thicker, forming a hard ridge as layer after layer builds up in the same spot.

GLASSINE
A super calendered, smooth, dense, transparent or translucent paper manufactured primarily from chemical wood pulps which have been beaten to secure a high degree of hydration of the stock. Sometimes used as a release liner.

GLOSS
Characteristic of the surface which causes it to reflect light at a given angle.

GLUE
See adhesive.

GRAB
Ability of an adhesive to quickly adhere to a surface with a minimum of pressure (usually touched to the surface with its own weight). Also called instant adhesion or initial tack.

GRAIN
In papermaking, the direction in which most fibers lie corresponding with the alignment of the fibers in the direction of the paper travel through the paper machine.

GRAM
Unit of weight in the metric system; the weight of one cubic centimeter of water at standard conditions. 28.35 grams equal one ounce.

GUARD BARS 
The bars which are at both ends and center of a UPC and EAN symbol. They provide reference points for scanning.

GUM
Reference to a broad class of synthetic and natural adhesive materials which exhibit good tack characteristics. See adhesive.


HALFTONE
The reproduction of continuous-tone subjects such as photographs through a contact halftone screen, which converts the image into dots with equal spacing and different sizes.

HALO
An undesirable, peripheral outline of a printed image. An undesirable, peripheral outline of adhesive around the edge of an applied pressure sensitive label (due to adhesive ooze or substrate shrinkage).

HANG TAG 
Also referred to as swing tag, coupon tag, hang ticket or swing ticket. All variations of the paperboard or plastic swinging tags that are familiar on garments and point of sale applications. Most, but not all, hang tags do not have adhesive.

HARD DOT 
A term that refers to a dot where the fringe or halo is so slight it is barely noticeable and the dot is very sharp.

HARDNESS
Degree of hardness. Shore and Rockwell are two scales used to measure and compare hardness.

HAZE
A degree of cloudiness in a plastic material.

HEALTHCARE SECURITY SOLUTONS 
Security solutions include personal ID, blood bag labeling, sample identification, deep freeze sample storage, and sterile services labels.

HEAT RESISTANCE 
The property of a material which inhibits the occurrence of physical or chemical changes caused by exposure to high temperatures. Many film materials have high heat resistance and some are specifically made for extreme heat conditions.

HEXACHROME
A six-color process developed by Pantone, which adds a vivid orange and intensified green to the standard CMYK color printing system. It uses a color matching system that allows for the combination of six colors in order to create a larger gamut of reproducible color.

HIGH TEMPERATURE ADHESIVE
An adhesive that enables a pressure sensitive label to adhere or stick well when applied to a hot substrate. It has a high degree of resistance to aging or deterioration at elevated temperatures.

HIGHLIGHT
The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of all dots.

HIGH-SPEED UNWIND 
A device used to accelerate the unwinding of a roll of labels on a high speed automatic label dispenser.

HOLDING POWER 
The ability to withstand stress, as in holding rigid label materials on small diameter cylindrical objects. Involves both adhesive and cohesive strength and flexibility of the face material.

HOLOGRAM 
The pattern on a photosensitive material or embossed into a polymeric film structure resulting from an interference pattern created by a laser light striking an object, then merging with a reference beam of the same light.

HOT MELT ADHESIVES 
Thermoplastic materials with 100% solids that liquefy when heated and resolidify on cooling to form a bond with the face sheet. It is a pressure sensitive lamination which includes a release coated backing sheet.

HOT STAMPING 
A printing process in which the image is transferred to a label material by a combination of heat and pressure. Typically a very thin aluminum foil is used in a variety of metallic colors, but solid colors and patterns are also used.

HUE
The main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue are color hues.

HYDROSCOPIC
The quality of some materials to absorb atmospheric moisture; exhibiting an affinity for water.

ID

Inside diameter. In label manufacturing, the ID is often called out for the core on which the labels are rolled around. The ID of a label core can be important if the labels are to be mounted on an unwind chuck for subsequent printing operations or if used on an automatic label application machine.

IMPACT PRINTING 
A printing system where microprocessor-controlled hammer impacts against a ribbon and a substrate.

IMPREGNATE
To saturate or permeate a material with a substance.

IMPRESSION CYLINDER 
In printing, the cylinder on a printing press over which the material feeds to pick up the impression from the inked plate.

IMPRESSION
The image transferred from the printing plate or cylinder to the printing substrate.

IMPRINTING
Technique in which changeable copy is added to blank or previously printed labels or tags with a secondary printing device such as an imprinter, computer printer, or typewriter.

INDUSTRIAL LABELS
Labels that are required to withstand a range of conditions and extreme climates which may include oil, water, chemical or grease resistance, high or low temperatures, abrasion or scuffing.

INHIBITOR 
A compound (usually organic) that retards or stops a chemical reaction such as corrosion, oxidation or polymerization.

INITIAL RELEASE 
A release test run immediately after coating and laminating.

INITIAL TACK
Degree of stickiness when a pressure sensitive label is first applied to a product.

INK BLEED 
Penetration of one color of ink into the facestock in such a manner as to cause one color to run into and discolor either the background color of the facestock, or another color of ink that is laid down adjacent to the color that is bleeding.

INK HOLDOUT 
Describes the degree to which pigment and binder stay on the surface of a material; a function of the ink, material and solvent (or chemical) interactions.

INK JET 
A method of printing using jets of very fine ink droplets fired at the substrate to form the same or variable information images on to paper or other substrate without a press. There are special label materials manufactured specifically for inkjet applications.

IN-LINE PRESS 
A press coupled to another operation such as sheeting, die-cutting, or creasing. A multi-color press in which the color stations are mounted horizontally in a line.

IN-MOLD LABELS (IML) 
Special type of labels which are bonded to plastic bottles during the blow-molding operation.

INTERLEAVED 2 of 5 BAR CODE 
A numeric only, bi-directional, self-checking bar code symbology consisting of five bars, two of which are wide. Both spaces and bars carry information, and there must be an even number of characters in the code.

INTERNAL BOND 
See cohesive strength.

INTERNAL STRESS 
Stress created within the adhesive layer by the movement of the adherends at differential rates or by contraction or expansion of the adhesive layer.

INVISIBLE BAR CODES
These bar codes make use of near infra-red fluorophones, which are invisible to the naked eye. They produce visible fluorescence when subjected to laser light. The inks used for invisible bar code reading are available for both flexographic and thermal transfer printing.

INVISIBLE INKS 
These inks print an image that is invisible to the eye under normal lighting conditions and glows when the print is placed under a black lamp. These inks are typically used for security or anti-counterfeiting applications.

IRIDESCENT LAMINATE 
A laminate with iridescent properties. It has a shiny, pearl-like effect with changes in color when the angle of view or illumination is changed. Iridescent laminates can enhance the overall desired look of a label.

IRRADIATION
Treated with ultra-violet light or another high energy ray.

IR-SCANNABLE 
Capable of being read by an infrared scanner.

ISO 9001 
A global quality management standard that involves making improvements across a wide range of business processes. Activities can be managed as a process, with each activity adding value to the last, all ultimately leading to customer satisfaction. ISO 9001 certification demonstrates a converters commitment to quality and for many printing buyers it has become the expected standard. Coast Label companys quality management system is certified under the ISO 9001:2008 standard.

ISO
The International Organization of Standards (ISO) is a non-governmental organization which occupies a special position between the public and private sectors, developing worldwide technical standards and providing a consensus on solutions that meet both the requirements of the business and the broader needs of society. The ISO issues the ISO 9001:2008 quality standard, as well as more than 14,000 international standards for business and government.


JIG
Device used to assist the correct placement of a semi-automatically applied pressure sensitive label. Usually it is made to fit the shape of the product being labeled.


KEY-LINE 
An outline drawing used in artwork for labels to indicate the exact shape, position, and size for elements such as halftones, line sketches text, among others.

KISS CUT 
A die-cutting operation which cuts through the face stock and adhesive to a release liner, but not through the liner. A proper kiss-cut will leave a depression in the surface of the release liner without penetrating the silicone release coating.

KISS IMPRESSION 
The lightest possible impression which will transfer the film of ink from the transfer roll to the plate and from the plate to the material being printed.

KNIFE CUT LABELS 
See butt cut labels.

KNOCK-OUT 
In color printing, the process of dropping an image out of the color such as dropping white type out of a color background. Often called reverse printing.

KRAFT
An unbleached, brown wood pulp made by the sulfate paper-making process. Kraft labels are often used to add information or make printing corrections on brown corrugated packaging or for specific applications where kraft paper is selected for its unique look and feel.

KROMEKOTE
A trademark of a clay coated paper with a highly polished, mirror-like finish; high gloss.

L.I.F.E.® Certification 

A program developed by the Tag & Label Manufacturers Association specifically for Tag & Label companies. Patterned after ISO 14001, it addresses the unique environmental, safety, and sustainability issues that face the label converting industry including: the recycle-compatibility of adhesives; the source and destination of liner materials and how label companies are driving recycling programs for these materials; and material construction light-weighting (adopting thinner constructions that generate less waste). L.I.F.E® is an audited certification process and Coast Label Company is one of the few label companies in North America to achieve this certification for our facility.

LABEL STOCK
Pressure-sensitive laminate material from which labels are produced. It consists of a face stock, an adhesive and a release liner. Usually refers to roll stock.

LABEL
The functional portion of a pressure sensitive construction comprising the face material and adhesive, die cut into various shapes.

LABELING MACHINE 
A machine that dispenses a self-adhesive label and applies it to a container, pack or product. Label machines vary in size and function. The orientation of the label off the roll is important when a label will be applied with a labeling machine.

LACQUER
A clear protective coating, usually glossy, applied to a printed web in-line on a label press just prior to die-cutting.

LADDER
See matrix.

LAMINANT
An adhesive for combining and bonding a combination of films, foils, plastics, papers or other materials. Pressure sensitive constructions are often call laminates.

LAMINATED FOILS 
See foil.

LAMINATING ADHESIVE 
An adhesive used for laminating transparent films onto printed surfaces. Images are printed on a clear label in mirror image and then a laminating adhesive is laminated with the ink and face stock. The image can then be read through the clear label and the ink is thoroughly protected.

LAMINATION
A plastic film bonded by heat, adhesive and/or pressure to a printed web for protection or appearance. Two or more materials bonded together functioning as one.

LASER MATERIAL 
Paper or film face stock or label stock that is manufactured to feed through laser printers without jamming and accept laser printing. Laser materials are typically converted into 8.5 x 11 sheets, which most laser printers accept.

LASER PAPER 
Paper suitable to accept laser printing.

LASER PRINTING 
A method of printing which utilizes a laser beam and dry toner to image onto a substrate. Usually the surface of the substrate must have specific characteristics for successful toner anchorage.

LASER SCANNER 
An optical reading device using a low energy laser light beam as its source of illumination.

LATEX
An emulsion of rubber or resin particles dispersed in an aqueous medium. A natural or synthetic elastomeric dispersion in an aqueous system.

LATEX PAPER
Paper manufactured by two major processes; one is where the latex is incorporated with the fibers in the beater prior to formation of the sheet, and the other is where a preformed web of absorbent fiber is saturated with properly compounded latex. The papers are characterized by strength, folding endurance, resistance to penetration by water, flexibility, durability and resistance to abrasion. Latex paper labels are often used in the medical and pharmaceutical industries.

LAY FLAT 
A label material with good non-curling characteristics make it suitable for any form of printing or processing where a flat sheet is required. Laser materials are made with lay flat liners so the sheets do not curl after manufacturing.

LEAN MANUFACTURING 
Lean manufacturing, lean enterprise, or lean production, often simply, “lean,” is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service, “value” is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. Coast Label Associates have been trained in and practices lean manufacturing.

LEXAN
Lexan® is a registered trademark for SABIC Innovative Plastics (formerly General Electric Plastics polycarbonate film). Lexan is a highly durable material and is suitable for outdoor applications, nameplates and overlays.

LIFTING
An undesirable outcome where a label exhibits some degree of lifting from the applied surface.

LIGHT PEN 
A hand-held scanning wand which is used as a contact bar code reader.

LIGHT-FAST INKS 
Used for outdoor and other applications where the printed image is exposed to daylight or fluorescent light and may fade.

LINE AND SCREEN 
Any reproduction of line and single or multiple screen work not utilizing the combination of the three primary colors. Any number of colors can be utilized.

LINE HOLE PUNCHING 
See feed slots.

LINER
The carrier sheet, as opposed to the face, of material in a pressure sensitive lamination. It usually has a release coating applied so the adhesive will adequately stick to the backing.

LITHOGRAPHIC PAPER 
A paper coated on at least one side, suitably prepared for lithographic printing. Sometimes it is simply abbreviated as litho.

LOGISTICS LABELS 
Labels on transit packaging that are used to help move goods around, track, and trace their movement in the supply chain and ensure they reach the correct destination. These labels are printed with variable text and unique numerical or bar code symbols using thermal, laser or inkjet imprintable labels.

LOSS OF TACK 
The adhesive loses its adhesion properties and does not grab as well as it should.

LUMINESCENT PIGMENTS 
Special pigments available to produce striking effects in the dark. Basically there are two types; one is activated by ultra-violet radiation, producing very strong luminescence. The second is known as phosphorescent pigments, it does not require any separate source of radiation.

M

Abbreviation for a quantity of 1,000.

MACHINE DIRECTION 
The direction of any material parallel to its forward movement on the press.

MAGENTA
A subtractive primary color which reflects blue and red light and absorbs green light.

MAGNETIC CYLINDER 
A cylinder used in die cutting that is magnetized to accept and hold flexible steel dies in place. Also used in conjunction with metal-backed printing plates.

MAGNETIC DIE 
A thin, flexible, steel cutting plate that is held on to a base cylinder magnetically. Magnetic dies are a less expensive alternative to solid steel engraved tools.

MAKEREADY
On printing presses, all operations prior to running; such as mounting plates, adjusting the in-feed, edge guide, putting ink in the fountain, adjusting the impression, setting up the die-cutting, color matching, and more. All preparatory operations preceding production.

MANDREL
A shaft upon which cylinders, or other devices, are mounted or affixed. Also unwind or rewind shaft on to which rolls of materials (or labels) are mounted.

MARGINAL PUNCHING
See feed slots; pin feed.

MASTER ROLL 
A full width roll that has finished the primary manufacturing process and is usually untrimmed and unslit.

MATERIAL SPLICE 
An area where tape has been used to attach two rolls of material together to form one continuous web.

MATERIAL
Usually refers to unconverted stock, pressure sensitive or not.

MATRIX
The face material and adhesive surrounding a die cut self-adhesive label, usually removed after die-cutting.

MATTE FINISH 
Paper coatings, inks, varnishes, and laminates may all be obtained with a matte finish, which diffuse the reflection of light to provide a flat, non-glossy finish.

MEMBRANE SWITCH 
Self-contained sealed film lamination printed with conductive inks that form trace paths for electrical currents. Primarily composed of pressure sensitive polycarbonate and/or polyester films designed to replace traditional glass-type switches.

MEMORY
The property of a material that causes it to return to its original dimensions and shape. Most often found with film labels, memory can cause a label material to want to lift, or flag off a curved surface. Stronger adhesives or thinner gauge materials, or both, are often the solution.

METAL FOIL 
Thin, flexible layer of metal, such as aluminum, used as face materials. Thinner gauges are often laminated to paper for strength.

METALIZED FILM 
A plastic or resinous film that has been coated on one side with a very thin layer of metal.

METALIZED PAPER 
A label substrate consisting of a lacquered C1S paper on which a very thin film of aluminum has been deposited.

METALIZING
Applying a thin coating of metal to a non-metallic surface. May be done by chemical disposition or by exposing the surface to vaporized metal in a vacuum chamber.

METALLIC INKS 
Inks that consist of powder like metallic flakes, such as aluminum and copper alloys, which are mixed with a varnish or pigment carrier.

MICR
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. The process of a machine reading characters using magnetic sensing.

MICROMETER
A mechanical device for measuring thickness (usually in thousands of an inch).

MICRON
A unit of measure. One-millionth of a meter or about .00004″ (25 microns = 0.001″).

MICROPERF
Microperforations (microperf) are very small perforations or pinholes in paper that enable a section or part of the paper to be easily separated. Microperforations leave a smooth edge without the normal more jagged edge found with standard methods of perforation.

MIGRATION OF PLASTICIZER 
Loss of plasticizer from an elastomeric plastic compound with subsequent absorption by an adjacent medium of lower plasticizer concentration. This often causes a loss of adhesion.

MIGRATION
The movement of one or more of the components of a pressure sensitive adhesive to either the labeled surface or face material. Also the movement of one or more of the components of either or both the face material and the labeled surface into the adhesive and/or ink.

MIL
A unit of thickness measurement used for label materials. 1 mil=0.001 inch=100 gauge.

MILEAGE
The surface area covered by a given quantity of ink or coating. Also used to measure rotary die usage or expected useful life.

MILL ROLL 
Roll of paper, film or foil as received by the converter from the mill.

MINIMUM APPLICATION TEMPERATURE 
The lowest temperature at which a pressure sensitive label (adhesive) can be applied to a product and still retain its initial tack.

MISCIBLE
Capable of being mixed; mutually soluble.

MISREAD
A condition which occurs when the data output of a reader does not agree with the encoded data presented.

MMSI
A million square inches of material.

MODULE
The narrowest unit of measure in a bar code. A module may be ‘black’ or ‘white’. Contiguous modules are used to form bars or spaces which are wider than one unit.

MOIRE
In color process printing, an undesirable screen pattern formed by improper screen angles of overprinting halftones.

MOISTURE CONTENT 
The moisture present in a material as determined by specified methods.

MOISTURE RESISTANCE
Label materials that resist the uptake or passage of moisture. The moisture resistance of paper labels can be improved by varnishing or overlaminating.

MOISTUREPROOF
The property of a material which makes it substantially impervious to water vapor.

MOLD RELEASE AGENTS 
Materials used in the manufacture of molded objects to facilitate their removal from the mold. Mold release agents can cause serious adhesion problems in some instances.

MONOMER
A primary chemical structure which reacts with itself, under the influence of catalytic action, to create polymeric forms of much greater molecular weight.

MOTTLE
A spotty or uneven appearance of printing mainly in solid areas.

MSI
One thousand square inches of material.

MULTI-PROCESS
A combination of any of the printing processes and other decorating methods. An application of lacquer utilizing another printing station other than the main printing process shall not qualify as multi-process.

MYLAR 
DuPonts trademark for clear, tough polymeric polyester film. It has a good resistance to moisture, solvents, oils and other chemicals. Polyester labels are used for durable label applications.

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NAMEPLATE
A rigid or flexible material that carries detailed information about a product (e.g. serial number, voltage, type, etc.) and is fixed or mounted in position by screws, pins or adhesive. Materials used may be metal plates, metallic foils, metalized plastics, rigid plastics, or other materials designed to withstand exposure and adverse conditions.

NATURAL AGING 
The change in a material occurring when it is exposed to normal environmental conditions.

NATURAL RUBBER 
Coagulated latex obtained from rubber trees and shrubs sometimes used as bases for adhesives and coatings. It has very low compression and permanent set and good resistance to cold flow. Sunlight, oxygen and ozone resistance is not as good as that of most synthetic rubbers.

NEGATIVE
A photographic image of originals on paper, film or glass in reverse from that of the original copy. Dark areas appear light and vice versa.

NEGATIVE IMAGE 
A reversed image.

NEOPRENE RUBBER 
A polymer of chloroprene which is used as an adhesive base. Commonly used where oil and gasoline resistance is required. Resistance to swelling action of aromatics (pure and in fuels) is poor but much better than natural rubber. Also used to coat doctor or metering rolls.

NIP
Line of contact between two rolls. Often referred to as the pull or draw rolls of a web press.

NOMINAL SIZE 
The standard size for a bar code symbol. Most codes can be used over a range of magnifications, commonly from 0.80 to 1.20 nominal.

NON-BLOCKING 
Refers to an applied adhesive that will not adhere to other surfaces under normal storage conditions.

NON-FLAMMABLE 
Not readily combustible.

NON-ORIENTED FILM 
Film which has not been subject to stress to align the polymer chains and improve properties.

NON-POLAR 
Having no concentrations of electrical charge on a molecular scale, incapable of significant dielectric loss. Examples among resins are polystyrene and polyethylene.

NON-PRIME LABEL 
A label supplying supportive information to a product or performing any other function.

NON-READ INK 
Any ink with a sufficiently high reflectance to prohibit detection by an optical scanner. Non-read inks are used as visual guides that do not interfere with data reading.

NON-VOLATILE
Refers to the portion of an adhesive, coating or sealer that does not evaporate or vaporize at relatively low temperatures.

NON-WOVEN MATERIALS 
Usually refers to paper tissues or synthetics such as rayon.

NUMERIC
A machine vocabulary that includes only numbers as contrasted to alphanumeric which includes letters and numerals.

NYLON
DuPont’s trade name for a strong plastic film with high oil and gas resistance. It is used as a filament in strapping tapes, with high impact resistance.

NAMEPLATE
A rigid or flexible material that carries detailed information about a product (e.g. serial number, voltage, type, etc.) and is fixed or mounted in position by screws, pins or adhesive. Materials used may be metal plates, metallic foils, metalized plastics, rigid plastics, or other materials designed to withstand exposure and adverse conditions.

NATURAL AGING 
The change in a material occurring when it is exposed to normal environmental conditions.

NATURAL RUBBER 
Coagulated latex obtained from rubber trees and shrubs sometimes used as bases for adhesives and coatings. It has very low compression and permanent set and good resistance to cold flow. Sunlight, oxygen and ozone resistance is not as good as that of most synthetic rubbers.

NEGATIVE
A photographic image of originals on paper, film or glass in reverse from that of the original copy. Dark areas appear light and vice versa.

NEGATIVE IMAGE 
A reversed image.

NEOPRENE RUBBER 
A polymer of chloroprene which is used as an adhesive base. Commonly used where oil and gasoline resistance is required. Resistance to swelling action of aromatics (pure and in fuels) is poor but much better than natural rubber. Also used to coat doctor or metering rolls.

NIP
Line of contact between two rolls. Often referred to as the pull or draw rolls of a web press.

NOMINAL SIZE 
The standard size for a bar code symbol. Most codes can be used over a range of magnifications, commonly from 0.80 to 1.20 nominal.

NON-BLOCKING 
Refers to an applied adhesive that will not adhere to other surfaces under normal storage conditions.

NON-FLAMMABLE 
Not readily combustible.

NON-ORIENTED FILM 
Film which has not been subject to stress to align the polymer chains and improve properties.

NON-POLAR 
Having no concentrations of electrical charge on a molecular scale, incapable of significant dielectric loss. Examples among resins are polystyrene and polyethylene.

NON-PRIME LABEL 
A label supplying supportive information to a product or performing any other function.

NON-READ INK 
Any ink with a sufficiently high reflectance to prohibit detection by an optical scanner. Non-read inks are used as visual guides that do not interfere with data reading.

NON-VOLATILE
Refers to the portion of an adhesive, coating or sealer that does not evaporate or vaporize at relatively low temperatures.

NON-WOVEN MATERIALS 
Usually refers to paper tissues or synthetics such as rayon.

NUMERIC
A machine vocabulary that includes only numbers as contrasted to alphanumeric which includes letters and numerals.

NYLON
DuPont’s trade name for a strong plastic film with high oil and gas resistance. It is used as a filament in strapping tapes, with high impact resistance.


OCR
Optical Character Recognition. An information processing technology dealing with the conversion of imprinted or written data to another language and medium.

OCR-A 
An abbreviation commonly applied to the character set contained in ANSI Std. X3.17-1974.

OCR-B 
An abbreviation commonly applied to the character set contained in ANSI Std. X3.49-1975.

OD
The outside diameter (OD) of a cylinder, roller or roll of labels. The OD of a finished roll of labels is often specified, especially when labels will be mounted on a printing or application machine with certain OD size limitations.

OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer. One who produces a component or components used in the making of a finished assembled product.

OFF-CUT 
The part of the trim width that is not utilized. Usually a narrow roll which is left over because the customer placed an order which does not utilize the full master roll width.

OLEFINS
A group of unsaturated hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH2n and named after the corresponding paraffins by the addition of ‘ene’ or ‘ylene’ to the stem.

OLEO RESINS 
Semi-solid mixtures of the resin and essential oil of the plant from which they exude, and sometimes referred to as balsams. Oleoresinous materials also consist of products of drying oils and natural or synthetic resins.

OLIGOMER
A chemical compound whose molecules consist of a group linked monomers. This is a compound intermediate in size between the single monomer unit and the huge polymer molecule.

ONE COMPONENT ADHESIVE 
A pressure sensitive adhesive in which all of the necessary properties are derived from a single uniquely designed synthetic polymer.

ON-LINE 
An operation in which peripheral devices are connected directly to the computer central processor.

OOZE
Adhesive moving out of the ends of rolls or stacks of sheets that causes the ends to feel sticky and possible the material to block. Winding labels on the roll too tightly may cause adhesive ooze. Also known as adhesive cold flow.

OPACIMETER
The instrument with which the degree of opacity may be measured.

OPACITY
The measure of the amount of light that can pass through a material. The hiding property of an ink film; property of film allowing printed material to show through in varying degrees. Specific label materials are available where high opacity is required.

OPAQUE
A material or surface that is not transparent, translucent or transmits light. Opaque label materials are often used when covering up existing text on a product. The opacity of the label assures the ink underneath the label will not be visible.

OPAQUE INK
Ink that is not transparent and reflects only its color, regardless of what colors it overprints. Opaque inks are used when overprinting on existing inks.

OPAQUENESS
The degree of opacity.

OPP
Oriented polypropylene.

OPTICAL CHARACTER READER 
An information processing device that accepts and processes machine or hand written characters.

OPTICAL
Relates to the utilization of light. Sometimes involves the use of light sensitive devices to acquire information.

OPTICAL THROW 
The distance from the face of the code reader or scanner to the beginning of the depth of field.

OPTICITE FILM 
Trademark of a label film supplied by Dow Chemical (polystyrene type).

ORIENTATION (BAR CODE) 
Bar code symbols may be positioned so that they can be scanned horizontally (the bars are vertical in a picket fence orientation) or vertically (the bars are horizontal in a ladder orientation).

ORIENTATION 
The alignment of the crystalline structure in polymeric materials so as to produce a highly uniform structure. Can be accomplished by cold drawing or stretching during fabrication. Also, the alignment of bars and spaces to the scanner.

OSHA
The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) of the US department of Labors mission is to ensure safe and healthy workplaces in America. OSHA has caution and warning labels placed in and around hazards in the workplace and on machinery suggesting operator use.

OVERLAMINATING 
Applications of a clear film to a label stock for the purpose of protection or to enhance graphic quality, usually done in-line on the press. These clear films can be glossy, matte or textured depending on the desired finished look.

OVERLAP
In applying a label around a bottle or container, one end extends over the other and adheres to itself.

OVERLAY
In artwork, a transparent film or tissue over copy on which color breaks, instructions or corrections are indicated. Also, transparent prints which, when combined or overlaid, form a composite picture.

OVERRUN
Production manufactured in excess of the specified order quantity. The industry standard is +/-10%.

OVERS
See overrun.

OXIDATION
The chemical reaction involving the process of combining with oxygen to form an oxide. The deterioration of an adhesive film due to atmospheric exposure. The breakdown of a hot melt adhesive due to prolonged heating and oxide formation.

PADDING

Binding sheets of paper together by applying flexible glue or adhesive to one edge of the stack.

PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM (PMS) 
An international system of matching color for printing, designating unique colors by standard Pantone Matching System® (PMS) numbers. Pantone is known worldwide as the standard language for color communication from designer to manufacturer to retailer to customer. See our Pantone color chart for reference.

PASS
One trip for the material through a production piece of equipment. Certain constructions require additional passes to complete the production.

PATTERN ADHESIVE 
See pattern coated.

PATTERN COATED 
The width and spacing arrangement of strips of adhesive laid down parallel to machine direction and across the width of pressure sensitive label stock during its manufacture. Also refers to adhesive coating applied in a pattern which is not related to web direction. Pattern adhesives are used when dry lift areas are needed on a label and when different grades of adhesive on the same label are required.

PATTERN VARNISH 
Spot varnish applied to the printed surface in a desired pattern.

PDF
Portable Document Format (PDF) is the standard for digital file transfer, where the information about all elements on the page; format, text, font, graphics etc, is delivered with the page. It is standard practice to provide a PDF of the label artwork with any request for quote.

PEARLESCENT PIGMENTS 
A class of pigments consisting of particles that are essentially transparent crystals of a high refractive index. The optical effect is one of partial reflection from the two sides of each flake. When reflections from parallel plates reinforce each other, the result is a silver luster. Effects possible range from brilliant highlighting to moderate enhancement of the normal surface gloss.

PEEL ADHESION 
Peel adhesion is the force required to remove a pressure sensitive label from a standard test panel at a specified angle and speed after the label has been applied to the test panel under specified conditions for a specific time period.

PEELBACK
A method of separating a bond of two flexible materials or a flexible and a rigid material that have been bonded with an adhesive. The flexible material is pulled from the mating surface at a 90 or 180 degree angle to the plane in which it is adhered. The stress is concentrated only along the adhesive line of immediate separation.

PEELER PLATE 
A sharp-edged, flat piece of metal around which the backing or carrier material is threaded. The prime function being a mechanical device which causes a pressure sensitive label to be dispensed from the backing material.

PENETRATION
Change of appearance of the face material due to movement of one or more components from the adhesive or the labeled surface. Also called bleed through and migration.

PERFORATION
A line or row of cuts or tiny holes that enable a label or its liner to be folded, torn off or separated easily. Perforation may be horizontal or vertical, with standard or microperforations. Perforations can also allow labels to be segmented as needed by an application.

PERMANENCY
A measure of an adhesive’s ultimate holding power or bond strength. A permanent adhesive will develop a bond that makes label removal difficult or impossible without distorting or tearing the face stock or the surface the adhesive has bonded to.

PERMANENT ADHESIVE 
An adhesive with relatively high ultimate adhesion to a wide variety of surfaces.

PERMEABILITY
The property of a material that allows or resists a substance to pass or flow through it.

PHARMACEUTICAL LABEL 
There are a wide range of applications and solutions required for pharmaceutical labels. Some applications may require the inks to be autoclaved or sterilized, while others may need to be stored in a freezer. The label will often need secondary information printed with a thermal transfer printer.

PHOSPHORESCENT FACE 
A face material coated with a phosphorescent ink that emits light in a visible spectrum.

PHOTOINITIATOR
In ultraviolet-curing systems, the chemical which, when exposed to UV light, breaks certain chemical bonds in the system to start the chain reactions which cause polymer formation. This chemical is commonly referred to as a catalyst.

PIGGYBACK LABELS 
Pressure-sensitive label constructions that have two release coated liners, two layers of adhesive and a face material which enables the label to be applied, complete with the backing, for further or future application.

PIGMENT
The particles or substance that gives printing inks, dyes or paints their color.

PIN FEED 
See feed slots.

PINHOLING
Refers to the failure of a printed ink to form a complete film. This condition will become visible by the appearance of small holes in the solid print area.

PLASTICIZER
A substance added to materials to impart softness, flexibility, workability, elongation and dispensability.

PLASTICIZER MIGRATION 
The migration of liquid plasticizers from some plastics into an adhesive and/or face material. It often causes excessive softening or degrading of adhesives.

PLASTICIZER RESISTANCE 
Plasticizers can migrate into adhesives and/or inks and cause a breakdown, resulting in loss of adhesion to the substrate. If the adhesive or ink is formulated to resist the plasticizer, the breakdown may not occur.

PLATE
The image carrier in letterpress and flexographic printing. Flexographic printing plates are made of a flexible polymer and wrap around a print cylinder for printing. Each color used on a label requires its own printing plate and ink station.

PLIABILITY
A property of face stock materials, measured under specified conditions, which indicates how readily they will conform to curved surfaces such as bottles, vials, or syringes. There are label materials specifically made where pliability is a requirement.

PLY
Each layer in a multi-layered structure.

PMS
Pantone Matching System® (PMS) is an international system of matching color for printing, designating unique colors by standard PMS numbers. Pantone is known worldwide as the standard language for color communication from designer to manufacturer to retailer to customer. See our Pantone color chart for reference.

POINT
Printer’s unit of measurement to designate type size. There are 12 points to a pica; approximately 72 points to an inch. Also, a term used for an expression of thickness of a sheet of material in one-thousands of an inch increments, I.e. 7 point = .007″ thick.

POLYCARBONATE
A thermoplastic polymer with excellent toughness characteristics. A composition of several layers is fused at high temperature.

POLYESTER
Made of polyetherylene terephthalate (PET), it is a high-performing film with excellent resistance to moisture, solvents, and oils. It provides excellent strength, clarity, and dimensional stability.

POLYESTER LINER 
A polyester film that is silicone release coated. It provides an excellent die cutting surface and is often used for high speed automatic label applications or for overlaminating films to provide a smooth, glass-like surface of adhesive.

POLYESTER METALIZED FILM 
A clear polyester film, vacuum metalized on one side to provide a metallic look.

POLYESTER OVERLAMINATION 
A clear matte or glossy polyester film coated with clear acrylic adhesive.

POLYETHYLENE
A tough, stretch plastic film with very good low temperature characteristics. Also used a great deal for producing semi-rigid recyclable bottles.

POLYMER
A compound formed by the reaction of simple molecules called monomers, having functional groups that permit their combination to proceed to high molecular weights under suitable conditions. A long-chain molecular structure.

POLYMERIZATION 
A chemical reaction initiated by a catalyst, heat or light, in which monomers and/or oligomers combine to form a polymer.

POLYPROPYLENE 
Similar to polyethylene but stronger and having a higher temperature resistance. Various thermoplastics are polymers of propylene with excellent clarity. It is also used in various thicknesses in the printing of labels as well as backing or liner materials.

POLYSTYRENE
A thermoplastic produced by the polymerization of styrene. The electrical insulating properties are outstanding and the material is relatively unaffected by moisture.

POLYVINYL
Refers to a group of resins formed by polymerizing various vinyl monomers.

POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE 
A usually very thin transparent film with excellent resistance to acids, water and organic solvents.

POROSITY
The property of paper that governs the degree of permeability, I.e., the passage of a substance through it.

POST CURE 
The continuation of a polymerization (curing) process within a UV ink or coating, after exposure to UV radiation has been terminated.

PREPRESS 
The activities involved in setting up and preparing label artwork for printing.

PRESS VARNISH 
A clear varnish applied in-line on a press. It can be overall or printed in pattern from a plate to allow for dry laps and other uncoated areas.

PRESS, WEB 
Press which prints substrates supplied on rolls.

PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVE 
Unlike other types of adhesives, they are able to form a bond at any time, permanently tacky and capable of bonding to almost any surface. No activation by water, solvent or heat is required to exert a strong adhesive bond on materials as diverse as paper, plastic, glass, wood, cement and metals.

PRESSURE SENSITIVE LABEL STOCK 
The combination of face material, pressure-sensitive adhesive and release liner from which pressure sensitive labels are manufactured.

PRESSURE SENSITIVE LAMINATE 
See pressure sensitive label stock.

PRESSURE SENSITIVE TAPE 
A combination of a pressure sensitive adhesive with a carrier. Tapes are either self-wound or utilize release liners or films.

PRIMARY LABEL 
A label that acts as the main identification of a product. Often designed to attract attention and contains information to appeal to a buyer and is usually applied at the time of its manufacture.

PRIME COAT 
Base coat applied first to enhance subsequent printing.

PRIME LABEL 
A label used to identify and display a product, I.e. a major product panel.

PRIMER
Surface coating applied between face stock and adhesive to improve bond performance and/or prevent bleed. See barrier coat.

PRINTABILITY
The ability of a material to accept and hold a printed legend, and especially to resist offset of the printing when rewound into a roll after printing. Also, a collective term used to describe the properties required of all components in the printing process.

PROCESS PRINTING 
The four process color inks; cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK), which are used in the printing of four color halftone labels.

PROTECTIVE COATING
Coating that protects the print and face material of a pressure sensitive label from abrasion, chemicals, and moisture. Also known as overcoat and overprint coating.

PSI
Pounds per square inch.

PULL ROLL 
See nip.

PULL TAB 
The area on a face stock that facilitates easy removal of the label, usually a cut area on a sheeted label. Also called a peel tab or tear tab.

PUNCHED OUT LABELS 
Anvil cut or sheeted labels. Also referred to as metal-to-metal cutting due to the die cutting edge coming in contact with the anvil.

PVC
Vinyl; polyvinyl chloride.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT 
The ability to satisfy, or exceed, the needs and expectations of customers. Printing is a manufacturing process that uses variable components such as paper, inks, plates and films completed by machinery that will eventually show signs of wear, or can be set up differently by the same or different operators. All of these variable elements need to be quality managed and controlled when possible. ISO 9001:2008 has become the standard in the printing industry by which key users, brand owners and buyers assess whether the system and procedures are in place to manage and control quality.

QUIET AREA
See clear area.

QUIET ZONE 
The light margin or clear area that surrounds a bar code symbol if it is to be read successfully.


READ AREA 
A term used to refer to the scan path or scan area.

REAM
Five hundred sheets of paper.

REAM WEIGHT 
The amount which one ream of paper weighs.

RECYCLABLE
Materials that are able to be reprocessed and used again.

REEL
A finished roll of labels.

REFLECTANCE
The amount of light returned from an illuminated surface.

REGISTER
A term in pressure sensitive label production that describes exact placement of successively printed images and/or die-cut pressure sensitive labels.

REGISTER MARKS 
Symbols attached to original copy for registering two or more colors when printing.

REGISTER
The corresponding placement of one color to the next, as well as the printing placement as it relates to die-cutting, scoring and perfing.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY 
The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere, expressed as a percent of maximum that could be present at the same room temperature.

RELEASE AGENT 
Materials used to facilitate the removal of molded items from their molds. These agents can cause serious problems in adhesion when applying labels to the molded products.

RELEASE COAT
The release liner treatment material that allows pressure sensitive labels to release from the release liner. They are usually made of silicone.

RELEASE COAT TRANSFER 
The transfer of release coat from the release liner to the pressure sensitive adhesive during release.

RELEASE LINER 
The component of the pressure sensitive label stock which functions as a carrier for the pressure sensitive label. Prior to application, it protects the adhesive, and readily separates from the label immediately before the label is applied to product.

RELEASE
The force required to free or separate a pressure sensitive label from its release liner, using a specific measuring device.

REMOVABILITY
A relative term applied to pressure sensitive labels to describe the force or condition under which they can be removed from a substrate. A removable label would be one in which no damage or staining occurs to the substrate or the face material on removal.

REMOVABLE ADHESIVE 
A pressure sensitive adhesive characterized by low ultimate adhesion and clean removability from a wide variety of surfaces.

REPEAT
The printing length of a plate cylinder, determined by one revolution of the plate cylinder gear.

REPOSITIONABLE
The ability of a pressure sensitive label to be bonded to a surface, removed and repositioned. This can only be done for a limited period of time (e.g., 20 minutes). Beyond that time, the bond may begin to become permanent if a removable adhesive wasnt used.

RESIDUE
The adhesive left on substrate when a label is removed.

RESOLUTION
The crispness or sharpness of an image or typeface, either on a monitor or an output device.

REVERSE PRINTING
Printing on the underside of a transparent film. Also a design in which the copy is ‘dropped-out’ and the background is printed making the copy appear in the color of the background.

REWIND
The take-up spindle or mandrel on a press. Also, the act of winding a roll of material through a machine to effect the opposite unwind.

REWINDING & INSPECTION 
The operation of winding the material from the press roll onto a core (or coreless) to produce rolls of the desired width, diameter and tension. Out-of-spec labels can be removed during this operation.

RIGHT READING 
An image whose parts are spatially oriented to each other on the original, in contrast to the way they would appear reflected in a mirror.

ROCKWELL HARDNESS 
A method of determining the surface hardness of a substance. Also called degree of hardness.

ROLL LABEL 
Pressure-sensitive labels that are produced in a continuous roll form.

ROLL-TO-ROLL
A method of running materials through a printing machine. A roll of material is fed into a printing unit, printed and then rewound into a roll as it exits the machine.

ROLL-TO-SHEET 
A method of running material through a printing machine. A roll of material is fed into a printing unit then sheeted as it exits the printing machine.

ROTARY PRESS
A press that in normal use features a roll-to-roll operation.

ROTARY PRINTING 
Accomplished by means of a cylindrical impression cylinder and printing plate.

RUB RESISTANCE 
Testing of print, label and packaging inks for rub resistance can be carried out using a number of rub resistance or rub tests.

RUB TEST 
Test performed to determine the durability and abrasion resistance of the printed surface of a label.

RUBBER BASE ADHESIVE 
Pressure-sensitive adhesive based on natural or synthetic rubber. Can be coated as a solvent, hot melt or emulsion system.

RUNNING REGISTER 
That control on a flexographic press which accurately positions, while in the run mode, the printing of each color station in the direction of the web travel. Also called circumferential register or longitudinal register.

SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION
Panels composed of a lightweight core material to which two relatively thin, dense, high strength faces or skins are adhered.

SATURATION
The addition of various materials such as latex or rubber to a face material so as to improve its various physical properties. Also called impregnation.

SCAN
The search for a symbol which is to be optically recognized. It searches for marks to be recognized by the recognition unit of the optical scanner.

SCORE
To make an impression or a partial cut in a material for the purpose of bending, creasing, folding, or tearing.

SCORE CUT 
See score.

SCREEN PRINTING 
A method of printing in which the ink is forced through a design on a taut screen and onto the object to be printed. This process results in a heavy ink deposit that provides excellent outdoor durability.

SCUFF
The action of rubbing against a surface with applied pressure. Also, the damage which has taken place through rubbing.

SEALER
A coating designed to prevent the passage of a substance through a substrate.

SECONDARY LABELS
Where primary and secondary labels are adhered to a product, the secondary label is usually smaller and positioned not to detract from the primary brand label. They are used to carry information such as health or safety requirements, nutritional details, instructions for use, EAN code, warnings, manufacturer or supplier information. Secondary labels are also used for tracking purposes. Also known as information or variable information labels.

SELF-ADHESIVE LABEL
See pressure sensitive label stock.

SELF-ADHESIVE PRODUCTS 
Converted pressure sensitive labels and products usually carried by a release liner.

SELF-CHECKING 
A bar code or symbol using a checking algorithm which can be applied to each character to guard against undetected errors. Non self-checked codes may employ a check digit or other redundancy in addition to the data message.

SELF-EXTINGUISHING 
A somewhat loosely used term describing the ability of a material to cease burning once the source of flame has been removed.

SELF-WOUND 
A roll of material with a single liner, which is coated on both sides with a release coating and a carrier having a pressure sensitive adhesive on both sides. Also, a material that has pressure sensitive adhesive applied to one side and then rolled up on itself without a release liner).

SEMI-AUTOMATIC 
A labeling machine in which only part of the operation is controlled by the direct action of a human. The automatic part of the operation is controlled by the machine.

SEMI-GLOSS PAPER
Coated, one-sided litho.

SEPARATOR
See pattern coated.

SERIAL CODE
A bar code symbol typically used with a fixed beam scanner where the scanning action is caused by the motion of the symbol past the scanning head. The bits of the symbol are evaluated one at a time as the symbol passes.

SERVICE TEMPERATURE
The temperature range that a P.S. label will withstand after a 24-hour residence time on the substrate. The range is expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius. Also called exposure temperature.

SET
The point during the bonding process when the adhesive has reached such structural proportions that it prevents the movement of the substrate’s surface.

SETUPS
See makeready.

SHEAR CUT 
A cut of a continuous web of stock using an action similar to the action of scissors.

SHEAR RATE 
Time required for breakdown of the shear strength.

SHEAR STRENGTH 
The relative resistance of an adhesive coated film or paper to a stress applied in such a manner that the adhering surfaces slide in a plane parallel to their plane of contact; the internal or cohesive strength of the adhesive.

SHEAR STRESS 
Where normal stress is perpendicular to the designed plane, shear stress is parallel to the plane.

SHEAR TEST 
A method of separating adhesive bonded materials by forcing the interfaces to slide over each other. The force exerted is distributed over the entire bonded area at the same time. Strengths are recorded in pounds per square inch, or in minutes or hours to failure.

SHEAR
The relative movement of adjacent layers in a liquid or plastic during flow. See cohesive strength.

SHEET-FED 
Designates a printing press to which paper is fed in sheets rather than rolls.

SHEET-FORM 
Pressure sensitive label stock packaged in sheets and designed for used on a sheet feed press.

SHEETING
The process whereby rolls of label stock or tag stock are converted into sheets of finished product by cutting them to the desired length in the sheeting stations on a rotary press. Once cut, the sheets enter the stacker accessory.

SHELF LIFE
The period of time during which a product can be stored under specific conditions and still remain suitable for use. Supplied material has a shelf life of one year. Also known as storage life.

SHELLAC
An alcohol-soluble natural resin widely used in flexographic inks.

SHRINK WRAPPING 
A method of packaging where labels are overwrapped with a shrink film and then passed through a heat tunnel to shrink the film tightly against the labels.

SHRINKAGE
Reduction in any dimension.

SILICONE
A polymer of organo-siloxane used as an ink additive to aid ink flow out. Also used for pressure sensitive adhesives capable of withstanding extreme temperatures. A polymeric material with exceptionally high repellency properties towards adhesives used extensively in the coating of release liners.

SILICONE ADHESIVE 
Adhesive compounds of this base have remarkable stability through a wide temperature range. Chief limitations for use are the high temperature cure and sensitivity to aliphatic and aromatic fuels; pressure sensitive adhesive which permits bonding to difficult surfaces; outstanding high temperature and low temperature performance; high resistance to oxidation; ozone and corona radiation and good dielectric properties.

SILICONE COATING 
A unique polymer system which is the standard release coating for pressure sensitive constructions.

SILICONE STAIN TEST 
A water-based stain used to test silicone coating coverage and continuity on die cut paper release liners.

SINGLE-FACED 
Where adhesive is applied to one side of a carrier, as in self-wound laminating films and tapes.

SIX SIGMA 
A management methodology that enables businesses to achieve a goal of increasing profits, improving product quality, and enhancing employee morale by eliminating waste, decreasing process variation, and identifying and reducing defects in manufacturing. Six Sigma refers to the mathematical term of six standard deviations from the mean, and a process that is capable of six sigma would produce no more than 3.4 defects per 1 million pieces.

SKIPPING
Missing print, tints or coatings on a substrate due to dry-in of ink or coatings in the cells of the anilox roll.

SKIPS
Areas wherein the adhesive or the release coating are missing from the lamination.

SLIP ADDITIVE 
Additive to inks or varnishes to effect improved slip or lubricating qualities.

SLIT
To cut rolls of stock to specified widths. Either rotary or stationary knives or blades are used with mechanical unwinding and rewinding devices.

SLITTER
A machine used to cut roll stock in the long direction. Three types are used: 1) razor blade slitter, 2) shear slitter, and 3) score slitter.

SLOT
A cut made in a material of a specific size and location. May have the face material removed when used to feed through imprinters.

SMUDGE RESISTANCE 
Resistance of a printed paper surface to ink blurring or smearing and thus related to the absorption of the paper.

SMUDGE RESISTANCE 
The resistance of a printed surface to smearing.

SOLIDS CONTENT 
The percentage weight of non-volatile components in an ink, coating or adhesive.

SOLVENT 
A liquid substance capable of thinning or reducing the viscosity of ink, coating or adhesives. Water is a solvent, but the term usually refers to organic liquids.

SOLVENT ADHESIVE 
Adhesive components that are dissolved in a variety of organic solvents for coating. Rubber or acrylic based systems can be coated this way.

SOLVENT RESISTANCE 
The resistance of a pressure sensitive label to the action of specific organic liquids. May apply to either adhesive or printing.

SOLVENT-FREE 
The absence of any solvent in an ink, coating or adhesive.

SOLVENTLESS SILICONE 
A silicone release coating applied without the use of any organic solvent or water. Also known as 100 percent solids silicone.

SPACE
The lighter element of a bar code formed by the background between bars.

SPECIFIC ADHESION 
The force required to remove a pressure sensitive adhesive from a specific product under precise conditions. Also, the relative tendency of adhesives to form bonds on specific surfaces. Some may be permanent on one surface and removable from another.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 
The ratio of the weight of a specimen to the weight of an equal volume of water.

SPLICE
A method of joining webs to produce an operational continuous web.

SPLIT BACK
Slits in the release liner to facilitate its removal by hand.

SPLIT FACE 
Slits in face or pressure-sensitive product usually for facilitating removal from the release coated backing.

SPLIT LINER 
See split back.

SPOT LABEL 
Label that does not extend completely around can or bottle. Usually confined to less than half the circumference.

SPOT VARNISH
See pattern varnish.

SPREAD
The enlargement of a printed image from the printing plate to the printed image. Also, a photospread to achieve required ink bleeds or traps.

SPREADS AND CHOKES 
See chokes and spreads.

SPUNBONDED OLEFIN 
A synthetic plastic material formed by the random distribution of very fine continuous fibers which are self-bonded by heat and pressure.

SQUEEZE-OUT 
The flow of excess adhesive or coating when pressure is applied.

STABILIZE 
To increase the steadiness of a film, keep it from changing or fluctuating. Usually vinyl films are stabilized by laminating polyester to one or both sides of the vinyl.

STABILIZED KRAFT 
Term used to describe paper that is treated to provide moisture resistance and dimensional stability.

STABILIZER
An ingredient used in the formulation of some plastics, especially elastomers, to assist in maintaining the physical and chemical properties of the compounded materials at their initial values throughout the processing and service life of the material.

STACKER
An accessory device on the take-off end of a press that automatically stacks sheeted labels.

STAIN RESISTANCE 
The ability of a label to be applied to a surface without discoloring that surface. Also, the ability of a printed label to resist staining due to exposure to the product being labeled.

STAINING
A discoloration of a surface caused by adhesive residue.

START/STOP CHARACTER 
A bar code character that provides the scanner with start or stop reading instructions as well as code orientation. The start character is usually to the left and the stop character to the right of a picket-fence oriented code.

STATIC CLING 
An induced property of a film which enables it to grab onto a smooth clean surface without using a pressure-sensitive adhesive. Static cling is a phrase applied to both mechanical grabbing and grabbing by electrical static.

STATIC
Electrical charges generated in handling materials which cause materials to cling together. Can jump to humans or equipment causing shock or fire if solvents are present. Often causes films to cling together or to other insulating surfaces.

STATIC ELECTRICITY 
A built-up electrical charge on the surface of a substrate or other surface. It is usually induced by friction and low atmospheric humidity conditions.

STEP AND REPEAT 
The act of creating multiple complete images on film or an electronic art file in preparation for plate making.

STICKYBACK 
Double faced adhesive coated material used for mounting printing plates to the plate cylinder.

STIFFNESS
The measure or degree of resistance to bending stress of a material.

STOCK
Paper or other material to be converted.

STORAGE STABILITY 
The ability of a material to be stored under normal conditions of temperature and humidity without change in its properties.

STRIKE-THROUGH 
The penetration of the adhesive or ink through the substrate.

STRINGINESS
A condition of the adhesive in which it feels very soft and mushy. On close examination, relatively long ‘strings’ of adhesive can be pulled out.

STRIP COATED 
See pattern coated.

STRIPPER-PLATE 
See peeler plate.

STRIPPING
The removal of the excess face material and adhesive (the matrix waste) from around the die-cut label shape by taking it around a roller, or over a metal bar, prior to being wound up on its own roll for disposal or recycling. Also called waste stripping or weeding.

STYRENE
A liquid unsaturated hydrocarbon (C8H8). See polystyrene.

SUBSTRATE
The surface to which a label is applied. Converters also refer to the face stock being printed as the substrate.

SUBSURFACE PRINTING 
Printing the underside of a transparent film. Ultimately the ink will be sandwiched between the film that was printed and the adhesive holding it to the surface to which it is applied.

SUNLIGHT RESISTANCE 
The ability of a material to resist the deteriorating effects of sunlight especially those wavelengths in the ultraviolet and the infrared ends of the spectrum.

SUNLIGHT RESISTANT ADHESIVE 
An adhesive which contains an inhibitor to resist destruction by ultraviolet rays.

SURFACE PREPARATION 
The physical and chemical methods used to prepare a surface for further processing.

SURFACE RESISTIVITY 
The electrical resistance of a material between the two opposite points of a unit of its surface.

SURFACE TENSION 
The property, due to molecular forces, by which all liquids through contraction of the surface, tend to bring the contained volume into a form having the least area. If an ink is to be compatible with a substrate, the surface tension of the ink must approximate that of the substrate.

SURFACTANTS 
A coined word used in industry to include all surface active agents.

SYMBOL LENGTH 
The length of a symbol measured from the beginning of the quiet area adjacent to the start character to the end of the quiet area adjacent to the stop character.

SYNTHETIC RESIN 
Resins prepared by chemical means.

SYNTHETIC RUBBER 
Elastomer manufactured by a chemical process as distinguished from natural rubber obtained from trees.

SYNTHETICS
Those materials developed and manufactured through chemistry, which tend to replace natural materials.

TACK
The property of a pressure sensitive label which causes it to adhere to a surface instantly with a minimum of pressure and contact time. It is the feeling of stickiness obtained when the surface of an adhesive is touched or when a label is applied to a surface and quickly pulled away.

TACKIFIER
An additive used to improve the stickiness or tack of an adhesive.

TACKINESS
The stickiness of the adhesive.

TAG LABEL 
Labels on heavy paper or tag stock with die cut holes so labels can be folded over a packaging material as in a header or hanger label.

TAGS
Any identification that is only partially affixed to the product or item. System tags are converted through roll-fed production equipment. Merchandise tags are converted through narrow web roll-fed production equipment.

TAMPER-EVIDENT LABEL 
A pressure sensitive construction made of materials which will partially destruct, indicating that a package, label or container has been tampered with.

TAMPERPROOF
A pressure sensitive material which cannot be removed intact from a substrate thus making reuse of the label impossible.

TAPE
A single faced, self-wound, adhesive coated substrate wound on spools for consumer use.

TAPPI
Technical Association of the Paper and Pulp Industry.

TARNISHPROOF LABEL 
Refers to a pressure sensitive label being free of substances that will discolor or blemish copper or silver.

TEAR STRENGTH 
Force required to tear a specimen under standardized conditions. This is measured with an instrument that simulates use conditions under which tearing might be accomplished.

TEAR TAB 
An additional area of face stock attached by the release liner to a pressure sensitive label produced in single form to facilitate removal of the release liner.

TEDLAR® 
Du Pont’s trademark for bi-axially oriented polyvinyl fluoride. One of the most durable, chemical-resistant and protective films.

TEETH PER INCH (TPI) 
Denotes the number of cuts per inch in a perforation blade.

TELESCOPING
Transverse slipping of successive winds of a roll of material so that the edge is conical rather than flat.

TENSILE STRENGTH 
The force parallel to the plane of the specimen required to break a given width and length of stock under specified conditions.

TENSION
The mechanical control of unwinding or rewinding paper, film, foil and other roll materials. The stress caused by a force operating to extend, stretch or pull apart.

THERMAL
A printing system where pixels on a print head are selectively heated and cooled in order to print images on material with a heat-sensitive coating that is passed under the print head at a controlled rate. The direct thermal surface coating turns dark in the heated areas.

THERMAL TRANSFER MATERIALS 
A face stock specifically designed to accept heat-activated ink from the ribbon of a thermal-transfer printer.

THERMAL TRANSFER 
Similar to a thermal print system, except a one-time ribbon and smooth surfaced materials are used to eliminate the problems of fading or changing color inherent in the direct thermal print process.

THERMOGRAPHIC PAPER 
A label paper having a heat activated coating that will accept an image from a thermal graphic printer.

THICKNESS
Distance from one surface of tape, label or adhesive to the other, usually expressed in mils, or thousandths of an inch. This is normally measured under slight pressure with a special gauge.

THROUGH CUT 
The action of die-cutting through all the layers in a pressure-sensitive label construction.

TIE
The uncut portion of a perforation.

TIGHT RELEASE 
The level of adhesion between the release liner and the adhesive on a pressure sensitive material, when the liner is difficult to remove.

TINTS
Even tone areas (strengths) of a solid color.

TLMI
The Tag and Label Manufacturers Institute (TLMI) is the premier member-driven association for the label and packaging industry. The TLMI provides education for its membership through conferences and meetings and also takes a leadership role. TLMI also promulgates many standards that are used in the testing of pressure sensitive labels, tags and their component materials. The association has approximately 300 member companies that produce 70% of the tags and labels sold in North America. Coast Label Company is proud to be a member of the TLMI.

TOLERANCE
A specified range that products must fall within.

TOOLING 
Tools used to cut labels such as dies, perforations, sheeters, scoring and slitting wheels, and butt cutters.

TOP LAMINATION 
Applications of a clear film to a label stock for the purpose of protection or to enhance graphic quality, usually done in-line on the press. These clear films can be glossy, matte or textured depending on the desired finished look.

TOP LAMINATION 
See overlaminating.

TOPCOAT 
A surface treatment or coating on a material which enhances ink receptivity. Sometimes refers to a protective coating.

TRACTOR FEED 
See pin feed.

TRANSFER ADHESIVE SANDWICH 
Pressure sensitive adhesive coated between two release liners with a release differential. This is so the release liners can be peeled away successively, so only the adhesive can be applied to a substrate.

TRANSFER TAPE 
A pressure sensitive adhesive, unsupported, applied to a two-side differentially release coated liner.

TRANSLUCENCY 
Ability to transmit light without being transparent.

TRANSLUCENT LABEL 
Material capable of transmitting light, yet not totally transparent.

TRANSLUCENT
Transmitting light in a diffuse manner so that objects beyond cannot be clearly distinguished; partly transparent.

TRANSPARENCY
Color or monochrome photographic positive on a transparent base. Also, the property of a material which transmits light rays so that objects can be distinctly seen through it.

TRANSPARENT LABEL 
A pressure sensitive label whose face material, adhesive and protective coatings transmit light so that objects can be seen through it.

TRANSPARENT
Transmitting light without appreciable scattering so the objects beyond are clearly distinguishable.

TRANSVERSE DIRECTION 
The direction of a base stock from left to right and side to side, as opposed to the web direction; cross direction.

TRAPPING
The overlapping of various colors in a design to prevent their separating and not touching as a result of registration variables during printing. The condition of printing ink on ink, making sure the first-down ink is dry when the next one is printed over it to properly hide the first down color.

TRIM MARKS
Marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the label where it will be cut. See crop marks.

TRIM
The normal edge waste from a master roll.

2D BAR CODES 
Unlike conventional bar codes, these two-dimensional bar codes are able to carry information in both horizontal and vertical planes, enabling more information to be printed in a smaller amount of space.

TUNNEL
The compartment through which the web passes for drying after printing.

TURNING BARS 
An arrangement of stationary bars on a press, which guide the web in such a manner that it is turned front to back, and will be printed on the reverse side by the printing units located subsequently to the turning bars.

TYVEK®
Du Ponts registered trademark for its non-woven, spun-bonded polyolefin material that brings together several of the best properties of paper, textile fibers and film into one synthetic material. It is extremely strong and resistant to continuous folding, tearing, and weather conditions.

UL
Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent, non-profit, product-safety testing and certification organization. It has been testing products for public safety for more than a century and is one of the most recognized and reputable conformity assessment providers in the world. Coast Label Company has been certified for the production of labels that conform to UL standards and has been certified to print the UL mark.

ULTIMATE ADHESION 
The resistance to the removal of a label after adhesion has been allowed to build for a period of time. The time required to reach ultimate adhesion varies with the adhesive, substrate and labeling conditions, but is approximately 24 hours.

ULTIMATE STRENGTH 
The maximum stress a material is capable of withstanding under specified load or tension.

ULTRA-VIOLET (UV) RESISTANCE 
The ability of a material to withstand extended exposure to sunlight (ultra-violet) without degradation, hardening or excessive discoloration.

ULTRAVIOLET
Zone of invisible radiations beyond the violet end of the spectrum of visible radiations. Since UV wave lengths are shorter than the visible, their photons have more energy, enough to initiate some chemical reactions. Radiation is from a source such as a high-intensity, mercury vapor tube emitting light in the 315 to 400 mill micron range.

UNBLEACHED
A term applied to paper or pulp which has not been treated with bleaching agents.

UPC
The Universal Product Code (UPC) is a 12-digit code used by manufacturers to identify themselves and their products. The allocation of the manufacturers identification number and the administration of the code system is done on the payment of an annual fee by manufacturer to the Uniform Code Council. The allocated code enables manufacturer members of the Council to identify trade items, logistics units, assets, locations, and service relations to bring efficiency into their supply chains.

UV (CURED) VARNISH 
A coating applied over a printed web and to label surfaces to enhance the appearance and provide a protective layer or finish. UV cured coatings change from liquid form to solid form almost instantaneously when exposed to energy emitted by intense UV curing lamps. A common misnomer is that UV cured coatings provide protection from the UV rays in sunlight, which they do not.

UV CURING 
A system which uses ultraviolet rays to affect a curing process.

UV INHIBITOR 
An additive that increases resistance to degradation caused by UV light.

UV INK 
Solventless, 100% solids ink that is cured by ultraviolet radiation.

UV RESISTANCE 
The ability of any material to withstand extended exposure to sunlight without degradation, hardening or excessive discoloration.

UV STABILIZER 
Any chemical compound which, when mixed with a thermoplastic resin, selectively absorbs UV rays.

UV
The part of the spectrum wherein the wavelength of light is shorter than that of visible light.

UV VARNISH
Lacquer or varnish usually applied over the printed web used as a protective layer that is cured by exposure to a high intensity ultraviolet light source (100% solids).


VARIABLE DATA PRINTING 
Warehousing, distribution, shipping, storage and tracking of all use labels that are printed with variable data. This variable information printing may be in the form of variable text, bar codes, sequential numbers, batch or date codes. They are usually printed with thermal transfer printers which ensure absolute legibility or with impact printing systems, such as dot matrix printers.

VARNISH 
A clear protective coating either glossy or matte in finish that contains no coloring pigments or dyes. When printed or coated over the top of a substrate, the varnish provides a protective finish that enhances appearance and increases durability.

VECTOR
Graphics and fonts which are created in outlines and then filled into dots before the printers can utilize them. Vector graphics are defined by points and curves rather than pixels or bitmapped graphics and are stored by a computer as a series of instructions by which the lines may be created. They are scalable and therefore not resolution dependent.

VEHICLE 
In printing inks, the fluid component which serves as the dispersant for the pigment and gives the ink flow (carrier).

VIGNETTE
An illustration in which the background fades gradually until it blends into the unprinted area.

VINYL
Synthetic plastic products which can be made in film, sheet or other forms. Vinyl can be manufactured in rigid or flexible constructions and is generally more flexible and conformable than polyester or other films. A tough durable plastic film having excellent resistance to oils, chemicals, and many solvents. It has excellent abrasion-resistance and can be colored. Its high degree of stretch is due to the addition of plasticizer. Also known as PVC or polyvinyl chloride.

VISCOSITY 
Resistance to flow. It is related to the properties of tack and yield value; the flow rate.

VOID
An area of a coated film which does not have the coating. An adhesive skip or adhesive void.

VOID MATERIALS
Anti-tamper label products, usually polyester based, that are applied to a labeling surface and when attempts are made to remove the material from the labeling surface, the pigmented or metalized layer on the back of the label fractures to leave a message on the labeling surface and the same message in relief on the back of the polyester.


WAND SCANNER 

See light pen.

WARM COLOR 
A color that appears to be on the reddish side.

WARRANTY LABELS 
Tamper-evident labels which indicate any type of undesired activity. They break, separate or deform upon a removal attempt. They also make reapplying impossible.

WASHUP 
The step in press make-ready of cleaning the rollers, plates and sometimes the ink fountains of a printing press.

WASTE
See matrix.

WATER SOLUBLE ADHESIVE 
A pressure sensitive adhesive in which all components are water soluble.

WATERBORNE ADHESIVE 
A dispersion of fine particles in another liquid. Many pressure sensitive adhesives are waterborne or emulsion systems.

WEATHERABILITY 
Capability of a label to withstand the effects of outdoor conditions such as sunlight, heat, cold, humidity, rain, snow and time.

WEATHEROMETER
A testing machine designed for evaluating the ability of a pressure sensitive label to withstand various simulated weather conditions.

WEB DIRECTION 
See machine direction.

WEB GUIDE 
Device which keeps the web traveling straight and true through the press.

WEB PRESS 
A press which prints from rolls (or webs) of material.

WEB TENSION
The amount of pull or tension applied in the direction of travel of a web of paper through a web press.

WEB
The paper, foil, film or other flexible material, from a roll, as it moves through the machine in the process of being formed or in the process of being converted or printed.

WET STRENGTH 
The tensile strength of paper when it is wetted after manufacture.

WETTING AGENT 
A preparation usually added to aqueous solutions to facilitate their spreading or increase their ability to evenly wet or penetrate a surface.

WETTING
The relative ability of a liquid adhesive to display interfacial affinity for an adherent and to flow uniformly over the adherent surface.

WICKING
Tendency of a liquid to ‘travel’ through paper. Refers to absorption of moisture into paper through the raw edge.

WRAP-AROUND LABEL 
Label that extends completely around bottle or can and overlaps itself.

WRINKLES
Small creases or folds in a smooth surface.

XEROGRAPHY
A method of printing in which negatively charged ink powder is attracted to a positively charged metal plate, from which it is transferred to the printing surface by electrostatic attraction.


YELLOWING
Gradual and generally undesirable color change in the original appearance of a label, characterized by the development of yellow and brown hues.

YIELD
Number of square inches of film (or paper) per pound of product per mil.


ZAHN CUP 
A device for measuring viscosity.

ZIG ZAG FOLD 
See fan fold.

ZONE RELEASE COATING
Permanently bonded liner and face stock that allows only the label portion to be removed from the liner.